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发表于 2016-7-4 11:53:05 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  (1) Hyponymy It refers to the sense relation between a more general more inclusive word and a more specific word.
  Language is a system of two sets of structures, one of sounds and the other of meaning.
  At the higher level, language is analyzed in terms of combination of meaning units.
  At the lower level, there is a structure of meaningless sounds.
  (3)The Great Vowel Shift It refers to a series of change in certain Middle English vowels, resulting in vowel raising, vowel fronting and diphthongization.
  (4)suprasegmental features
  Apart from the distinctive or contrastive features of segmental phonemes, there are some other features such as pitch, intonation, stress, length, juncture and pause that can be used to contrast words or larger units in meaning.
  (5) Context
  It refers to the features of the situation or environment, linguistic and/or non-linguistic in relation to which an utterance or text has meaning.
  (6) metathesis
  It refers to a process involving an alternation in the sequence of sounds.
  (7) coarticulation
  it refers to the simultaneous or overlapping articulations when sounds show the influence of their neighbors. it includes anticipatory coarticulation and preservative coarticulation.
  (8) interlanguage
  The type of language constructed by second or foreign language learners who are still I the process of learning a language is referred to as interlanguage.
  (9) illocutionary act
  In Austin's theory of speech act, illocutionary act refers to the act performed in saying something; its force is identical with the speaker's intention.
  (10) tense vowels
  it is also called long vowels, which requires more tension of the muscles.
  2.(答案提示各个小题均可以   首先分别解释一下每组的名词大意,然后比较一下每组两个名词的不同之处,可以尽可能的从比较全面的角度进行对比分析)
  3. (1) B  (2) C  (3) A  (4) C   (5) D
  4.* (此题考查语言能力与语言运用的区分。提示思路:两者的定义、区别及其与语言-言语区分的区别)
  *Why is linguistics considered as science?
  (1)Linguistics, as the science of language, means the study of language is considered worthy of learned attention and a regular body of facts and theories is built up around it.
  (2)Linguistics deal with the complicated system of language and the rules or principles operating in it.
  (3)The purpose of studying linguistics is to examine the body of facts and to make general statements about its various elements that realize to regular rules.
  (4)Linguistics differ from other sciences in that it both uses language as the tool and takes the language as its object to study. Linguistics has, for this reason, been considered as language about language.
  (5)Linguistics, the science of language, is considered with various aspects of language. And it is closely related with many of other sciences.
  文学部分答案要点PartII English and American Literature
  1. (1)D
  (3) B
  (4)A考点解析:Walter Scott 是浪漫主义时期的代表作家,而Jane Austen 和他都是同一时期的作家单她的作品内容属于现实主义。
  (6) D
  2. (1)James Joyce
  (2)Women in Love
  (3) realism
  (4) Washington Irving
  (5New England
  (6)Geoffrey Chaucer
  (7) Naturalism
  7. Parody
  Parody is a humorous imitation of a work of literature, art or music. A parody often achieves its humorous effect through the use of exaggeration or mockery.
  In literature, parody can be made of a plot, a character, a writing style, a sentiment or a theme.
  Understatement is a figure of speech in literary writing. It deliberately represents something as very much less in magnitude or importance than it really is, or is ordinarily considered to be. The effect is usually ironic.
  Byronic Hero
  Byronic hero refers to a proud, mysterious rebel figure of noble origin. With immense superiority in his passions and powers, they would carry on their shoulders the burden of righting all the wrongs in a corrupt society, and would rise single handedly against any kind of tyrannical rules either in government, in religion, or in moral principles with unconquerable wills and inexhaustible energies.
  主观题。 Ralph Waldo Emerson's influence on the literature and intellectual thought of America.
  (1)Ralph Waldo Emerson(1803--1882)was an American essayist, philosopher, poet and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early 19th century.(2) Essays are important works of Emerson, which conveys the best of his philosophical arguments and transcendental pursuits, such as Nature published in1836, considered as a manifesto for Transcendentalism, and The American Scholar in1837,considered to be “America's Intellectual Declaration of Independence”。 (3)Emerson's Transcendentalism is actually a philosophical school which absorbs some ideological concerns of American Puritanism and European Romanticism, with its focus on the intuitive knowledge of human being to grasp the absolute in the universe and the divinity of man. Basically, Transcendentalism has been defined philosophically as “the recognition in man of the capacity of knowing truth intuitively, or of attaining knowledge transcending the reach of the senses”。 Emerson once proclaimed in a speech, “Nothing is at last scared but the integrity of your own mind.” Others concepts that accompanied Transcendentalism include the idea that “nature is ennobling” and “the individual is divine and, therefore, self-reliant.” (4) Emerson's philosophy had inspired a lot of writers such as Thoreau, Whitman, and Dickonson.
  概况部分答案 (1)D (2)D (3)C(4)A(5)C(6)A (7) C  (8)C (9)  D  (10)A
  (1)。 Lake Michigan (2) Alaska (3) the Continental Divide (4) Texas (5) the Intermountain Basin and Plateau
  What were the contents and the significance of the Great Charter? -- The Great Charter, or the Magna Carta, was document signed in 1215 between the barons and king John. It had altogether 63 clauses, of which the most important contents were these: (1) no tax should be made without the approval of the Grand Council; (2) no freeman should be arrested, imprisoned, or deprived of his property except by the law of the land; (3) the church should possess all its rights and privileges; (4) London and other towns should retain their ancient rights and privileges; (5) there should be the same weights and measures throughout the country. The Great Charter was a statement of the feudal and legal relationship between the Crown and the barons, a guarantee of the freedom of the Church and a limitation of the powers of the king. The spirit of the Great Charter was the limitation of the powers of the king, but it has long been regarded as the foundation of English liberties.
  What is the role of the Monarchy in the British government? -- The sovereign is the symbol of the whole nation. In law, he/she is head of the executive, an integral part of the legislature, head of the judiciary, the commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the crown and the “supreme governor” of the established church of England.
  干涸( he)羁绊( ban)疾风劲草(jìng)树影婆娑(suo)混淆黑白(xiáo)
  (1)白居易  谁家新燕啄春泥 (2)钱塘湖春行(3)李白 我寄愁心与明月
  (4)朱熹 (5)为有源头活水来 (6)莫泊桑 (7)丰子恺 (8)春秋
  2. 汉乐府,主要作品为《陌上桑》《长歌行》《上邪》《十五从军征》《孔雀东南飞》,前四者见宋代郭茂倩编的《乐府诗集》,后者见南朝徐陵编的《玉台新咏》。其中《孔雀东南飞》是我国古代最长的叙事诗,与《木兰诗》合称“乐府双璧”。
  3. 艾青,原名蒋海澄,著名诗人。主要作品为《大堰河--我的保姆》《黎明的通知》《雪落在中国的土地上》《北方》《手推车》《光的赞歌》等。他的作品标志着“五四”以后自由体诗发展的一个重要阶段,又给以后的新诗创作带来很大影响。

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