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2014考研东北师范大学英语模拟试题(一)答案解析

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发表于 2016-7-4 11:52:55 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  2014年攻读硕士学位研究生入学考试模拟试题(一)答案解析
  专业基础
  1.TERM DEFINING (10 POINTS)
  1.In a broad sense, applied linguistics is the study of various applications of linguistic (and phonetic) scholarship to related practical fields. In a narrow sense, applied linguistics refers to the application of linguistic theories and principles to language teaching, especially the teaching of foreign and second language
  2.Phoneme is the basic unit in phonology; it is a unit that is of distinctive value, as an abstract unit, a phoneme is not a sound; it is a collection of distinctive phonetic features. In actual speech, a phoneme is realized phonetically as a certain phone.
  3.Morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit of language.
  4.Pragmatics is the analysis of meaning in context.
  5.Homonymy refers to the phenomenon that words having different meanings have the same form, i.e, different words are identical in sound or spelling, or in both.
  2.TURE OR FALSE
  1-5 FFTFF      6-10  FTTFF
  3.  1 Phonetics   2, authentic, spoken      3 context of use    4 linguists    5 Manner
  6. morpheme 7 derivative            8 grammatical relations  grammatical categories
  9 subject, predicate  10 open categories
  4   1-5 CACBC      6-10  CBBBD
  5  QUESTIONS
  1. (1) A root is the base form of word that cannot be further analyzed without total loss of identity. i.e. a root is that part of the word left when all the affixes are removed. For example, carelessness is a three-morpheme derivative which keeps care as its root when-less and-ness are removed
  (2) A stem is any morpheme or combination of morphemes to which an affix can be added. It may be the same as a root or different from a root. In the word tolerable, toler-is both the orot and the stem, but in the word intolerable, tolerable is its stem, toler- is its root. In the world relations, relation is both the root and the stem, but in the word relationship, relationship is its stem, relation is its root. Some words such as compounds: greenhorn, upgrade, have more than one root.
  2 (1) The syntactic rules of any language are finite in number.
  (2) There is no limit to the number of sentences native speakers of that language are able to produce and comprehend
  (3) For speakers to produce and comprehend well-formed sentences, the utterances must follow a fixed set of formal rules.
  (4) New sentences are created frequently and understood by the speakers of a language who have never heard or produced these sentences before.
  英美概况
  1.名词解释
  (1)The Hepatarchy means the period between the 6th century and the 9th century in the history of England in which one or other of the seven kingdoms(Kent, Sussex, Wessex,East Anglia, Essex, Northumbria and Mercia) of Anglo-Saxon origin was dominant. Finally in 829 the king of Wessex defeated the other kings and unified England; therefore, Egbert was regarded as the first king of England.
  (2)King of Lackland refers to King John, the king of England. He was the son of Henry II, who attempted to usurp the throne during the captivity of his brother Richard I.  King John succeeded in 1199 when Richard died. A revolt in Britatny involved him in war in france, but he lost the large area of land in france. As a result of this he had to sign the Magna Carta and the people gave him the nickname as such.
  (3)The Town of Townshend Acts are a series of measures taxing the American colonies on glass, lead, paints,paper and tea promoted by Charles Townshend who was Chancellor of the Exchequer and agriculturist and made experiments in four-course crop rotation and the cultivation of turnips which are important in the history of agriculture.
  (4)Sneak attack is an attack that launched quietly and secretly
  2.(1)The Great Charter contained three sets of provisions; a) that the king was not to exact extra payments from the feudal vassals without their consent; b ) that laws were not to be modified by the arbitrary action of the king c) that should the king attempt to free himself from law, the vassals had the right to force the king to obey it , by civil war or otherwise.
  (2) In the UK, both the House of Lords and the House of the Commons have equal rights in the making of law, but actually only the stronger party forms the government and the stronger party must be the majority party in the British Parliament. In the light of the practice of law making in the UK only the majority in the Hourse of Commons can pass the law because the stronger party in the House of Commons is the majority, therefore, the members of the stronger party in the House of Commons are the real law-makers.
  TRANSLATION
  强大的宇宙火箭的工作原理和简单的烟火火箭是一样的。烟火火箭有一圆柱形壳体和一锥形头部。壳体内充填黑色火药作为燃料。它是一种化学品的混合物,能迅速燃烧形成炽热的气体。
  火箭的底部有一个通道,即喷口。从喷口伸出一根尾巴似的引信。沿壳体装着一根长棍,用以在引信点着以前确定火箭发射的方向。
  当黑色火药燃烧时,炽热的气体,即燃气从喷口急速排出。只要黑色火药还在燃烧,燃气就不断急速排出。当这些燃气通过喷口往下喷出时,火箭就被向上推进。这就叫做喷气推进。图中所示的简单实验,可以帮助你了解喷气推进。
  The Chinese nation has always valued human dignity and value. Even in the ancient days, our ancestors came up with the idea of people being most important, believing that “man is the most valuable among all the things that heaven fosters.” Progress and development of a society hinge on human progress and development and depend on how well human dignity is maintained and how much human value is realized. The Communist Party of China has led the Chinese people in carrying out revolution, development and reform precisely for the purpose of ensuring the entire Chinese people broad freedoms, democracy and human rights. The immense vitality displayed by China today is a vivid reflection of the broad freedoms and democratic rights enjoyed by the Chinese people. China's population reached around 60 million as early as in the first century. For several thousand years, to meet the people's need for food, clothes, housing and transport has all along been the primary human rights challenge for successive governments in Chinese history. In today's China, which is a large developing country with a population of over 1.2 billion, top priority should still be given to ensuring the greatest possible majority of its people the rights to subsistence and development. Otherwise, there would be no other rights to speak of. To have been able to ensure our people these rights is in itself a major contribution to the progress of the world human rights cause.
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