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2011年考研英语模拟试题及答案详细解析(1)_跨考网

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发表于 2018-12-8 12:34:37 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
2011全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语模拟试题
  Section I Use of English
  What impact can mobile phones have on their users' health? Many individuals are concerned about the supposed ill effects caused by radiation from handsets and base stations,   1   the lack of credible evidence of any harm. But evidence for the beneficial effects of mobile phones on health is rather more   2  .  Indeed, a systematic review   3   by Rifat Atun and his colleagues at Imperial College, rounds up   4   of the use of text-messaging in the   5   of health care. These uses   6   three categories: efficiency gains; public-health gains; and direct benefits to patients by   7   text-messaging into treatment regimes.
  Using texting to   8   efficiency is not profound science, but big savings can be achieved. Several   9   carried out in England have found that the use of text-messaging reminders      10   the number of missed appointments with family doctors by 26-39%, and the number of missed hospital appointments by 33-50%. If such schemes were   11   nationally, this would translate   12   annual savings of £256-364 million.
  Text messages can also be a good way to deliver public-health information, particularly to groups   13   are hard to reach by other means. Text messages have been used in India to    14   people about the World Health Organization's strategy to control lung disease. In Iraq, text messages were used to support a   15   to immunize nearly 5 million children   16    paralysis.
    17   , there are the uses of text-messaging as part of a treatment regime. These involve sending reminders to patients to   18   their medicine, or to encourage accordance with exercise regimes. However, Dr. Rifat notes that the evidence for the effectiveness of such schemes is generally   19   , and more quantitative research is   20  .
  1. [A] so [B] even [C] despite [D] and
  2. [A] interesting [B] abundant [C] clear [D] reasonable
  3. [A] went [B] came [C] performed [D] turned
  4. [A] approaches [B] situations [C] problems [D] examples
  5. [A] reality [B] reorganization [C] delivery [D] discovery
  6. [A] fall into [B] sum up [C] associate with [D] subject to
  7. [A] cooperating [B] incorporating [C] adapting [D] adopting
  8. [A] rise [B] boost [C] produce [D] encourage
  9. [A] questions [B] incidents [C] cases [D] trials
  10. [A] reduces [B] degrades [C] deserves [D] drops
  11. [A] called upon [B] switched to [C] rolled out [D] went through
  12. [A] into [B] for [C] on [D] from
  13. [A] what [B] whose [C] which [D] who
  14. [A] ask [B] inform [C] adopt [D] contact
  15. [A] campaign [B] event [C] decision [D] communication
  Section II Reading Comprehension
  Part A
  Directions:
  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A],[B],[C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
  Text 1
  Prudent investors learned long ago that putting your eggs into lots of baskets reduces risk. Conservationists have now hit on a similar idea: a population of endangered animals will have a better chance of survival if it is divided into interconnected groups. The prospects of the species will be better because the chance that all the constituent subpopulations will die out at the same time is low. And, in the long term, it matters little if one or two groups do disappear, because immigrants from better-faring patches will eventually reestablish the species' old haunts.
  One endangered species divided in just this way is the world's rarest carnivore, the Ethiopian wolf, which lives high in the meadows of the Bale Mountains. Just 350 exist in three pockets of meadow connected by narrow' valleys in the Bale Mountains National Park, with a further 150 outside this area.
  Two of the main threats to the Ethiopian wolf come from diseases carried by domestic dogs. One of these, rabies, is of particular concern because it is epidemic in the dog population. At first blush, vaccinating the wolves against rabies seems a simple solution. It would be ambitious, because the prevailing thinking — that all individuals matter and therefore all outbreaks of disease should be completely halted — implies that a large proportion of wolves would need to be vaccinated.
  Dan Haydon, of the University of Glasgow, and his colleagues believe that conservation biologists should think differently. With the exception of humans, species are important but individuals are not. Some outbreaks of disease can be tolerated. In a paper published this week in Nature, they recast the mathematics of vaccination with this in mind.
  On epidemiologists' standard assumption that every individual counts, vaccination programmes are intended to prevent epidemics by ensuring that each infected animal, on average, passes the disease on to less than one healthy animal. This implies that around two-thirds of all the wolves would need to be vaccinated. A programme that sought to save a species rather than individuals would allow each infected wolf to pass the disease on to more than one healthy animal and hence require fewer vaccinations. Dr Haydon and his colleagues have calculated, using data from a rabies outbreak in 2003, that vaccinating between 10% and 25% would suffice, provided veterinarians gave jabs to those wolves living in the narrow valleys that connect the subpopulations.
  If the threat of rabies arose every five years, targeting all the wolves in the corridors would cut the risk of extinction over a 20-year period by fourfold. If this were backed up by vaccinating a mere 10% of the wolves in the three connected meadows, the chance of extinction would drop to less than one in 1,000. Saving a few seems to be an efficient way of protecting the many.
  21. By citing prudent investors' idea, the author wants to illustrate that___________.
  [A] conservationists got inspirations from it.
  [B] endangered animals can be protected in a similar way.
  [C] the prospects of some species depend on conservation.
  [D] the subpopulations will die without being put into different groups.
  22. The Ethiopian wolf___________.
  [A] is facing the risk of extinction as the rarest carnivore.
  [B] is separated into three groups to achieve survival.
  [C] lives in narrow valleys in the Bale Mountains.
  [D] has altogether 350 alive in the world.
  23. The idea that nearly all the wolves would need to be vaccinated___________..
  [A] is due to that rabies carried by dogs is epidemic.
  [B] is very easy to be realized by local medical administration.
  [C] is based on the thinking that every wolf is necessarily protected.
  [D] is supported by Dan Haydon of the University of Glasgow.
  24. From the last two paragraphs, we know that___________.
  [A] if each individual counts, one-third of wolves have to be vaccinated.
  [B] Dr. Haydon proved epidemiologists' standard assumption is right.
  [C] to vaccinate 10% to 25% of wolves living in the connected meadows is enough.
  [D] it takes 20 years to reduce risk of extinction if all the wolves are targeted.
  25. The main purpose of the text is to___________.
  [A] show the dangers Ethiopian wolves are facing with.
  [B] inform people of the prospects Ethiopian wolves.
  [C] teach how to divide Ethiopian wolves into groups.
  [D] tell how to protect Ethiopian wolves from rabies.
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 13:38:04 | 显示全部楼层

                        
Text 2
  It is no longer just dirty blue-collar jobs in manufacturing that are being sucked offshore but also white-collar service jobs, which used to be considered safe from foreign competition. Telecoms charges have tumbled, allowing workers in far-flung locations to be connected cheaply to customers in the developed world. This has made it possible to offshore services that were once non-tradable. Morgan Stanley's Mr. Roach has been drawing attention to the fact that the "global labor arbitrage" is moving rapidly to the better kinds of jobs. It is no longer just basic data processing and call centers that are being outsourced to low-wage countries, but also software programming, medical diagnostics, engineering design, law, accounting, finance and business consulting. These can now be delivered electronically from anywhere in the world, exposing skilled white-collar workers to greater competition.
  The standard retort to such arguments is that outsourcing abroad is too small to matter much. So far fewer than lm American service-sector jobs have been lost to off-shoring. Forrester Research forecasts that by 2015 a total of 3.4m jobs in services will have moved abroad, but that is tiny compared with the 30m jobs destroyed and created in America every year. The trouble is that such studies allow only for the sorts of jobs that are already being off-shored, when in reality the proportion of jobs that can be moved will rise as IT advances and education improves in emerging economies.
  Alan Blinder, an economist at Princeton University, believes that most economists are underestimating the disruptive effects of off-shoring, and that in future two to three times as many service jobs will be susceptible to off-shoring as in manufacturing. This would imply that at least 30% of all jobs might be at risk. In practice the number of jobs off-shored to China or India is likely to remain fairly modest. Even so, the mere threat that they could be shifted will depress wages:
  Moreover, says Mr. Blinder, education offers no protection. Highly skilled accountants, radiologists or computer programmers now have to compete with electronically delivered competition from abroad, whereas humble taxi drivers, janitors and crane operators remain safe from off-shoring. This may help to explain why the real median wage of American graduates hat fallen by 6% since 2000, a bigger decline than in average wages.
  In the 1980s and early 1990s, the pay gap between low-paid, low-skilled workers and high-paid, high-skilled workers widened significantly. But since then, according to a study by David Autor, Lawrence Katz and Melissa Kearney, in America, Britain and Germany workers at the bottom as well as at the top have done better than those in the middle-income group. Office cleaning cannot be done by workers in India. It is the easily standardized skilled jobs in the middle, such as accounting, that are now being squeezed hardest. A study by Bradford Jensen and Lori Kletzer, at the Institute for International Economics in Washington D. C., confirms that workers in tradable services that are exposed to foreign competition tend to be more skilled than workers in non-tradable services and tradable manufacturing industries.
  26. To off-shore services that were once non-tradable results from ___________.
  [A] the blue-collar job market
  [B] the geographic location of the Underdeveloped world
  [C] the fierce competition among skilled workers
  [D] the dive of telecoms fee
  27. Which of the following statements is the typical reply concerning off-shoring?
  [A] Service-sector has sustained a great loss.
  [B] White-collar workers will not have a narrow escape.
  [C] Most economists underestimated the effects of off-shoring.
  [D] Outsourcing abroad has no significant impact.
  28. According to the text, Forrester Research Prediction might be different if ___________.
  [A] outsourcing abroad is large enough to matter much
  [B] the proportion of jobs that can be moved will rise
  [C] more comprehensive factors are taken into account
  [D] education improvement in emerging economies plays a role
  29. The narrative of the text in the last three paragraphs concentrates on ___________.
  [A] the standard retort to the arguments
  [B] off-shoring and the resulting income
  [C] the future off-shoring
  [D] the counter-measures at hand
  30. Which of the following could be the best title for the text?
  [A] Business consulting.
  [B] Blue-collar jobs.
  [C] Non-tradable services.
  [D] White-collar blues.
  Text 3
  The mythology of a culture can provide some vital insights into the beliefs and values of that culture. By using fantastic and sometimes incredible stories to create an oral tradition by which to explain the wonders of the natural world and teach lessons to younger generations, a society exposes those ideas and concepts held most important. Just as important as the final lesson to be gathered from the stories, however, are the characters and the roles they play in conveying that message.
  Perhaps the epitome of mythology and its use as a tool to pass on cultural values can be found in Aesop's Fables, told and retold during the era of the Greek Empire. Aesop, a slave who won the favor of the court through his imaginative and descriptive tales, almost exclusively used animals to fill the roles in his short stories. Humans, when at all present, almost always played the part of bumbling fools struggling to learn the lesson being presented. This choice of characterization allows us to see that the Greeks placed wisdom on a level slightly beyond humans, implying that deep wisdom and understanding is a universal quality sought by, rather than steanning from, human beings.
  Aesop's fables illustrated the central themes of humility and self-reliance, reflecting the importance of those traits in early Greek society. The folly of humans was used to contrast against the ultimate goal of attaining a higher level of understanding and awareness of truths about nature and humanity. For example, one notable fable features a fox repeatedly trying to reach a bunch of grapes on a very high vine. After failing at several attempts, the fox gives up, making up its mind that the grapes were probably sour anyway. The fable's lesson, that we often play down that which we can't achieve so as to make ourselves feel better, teaches the reader or listener in an entertaining way about one of the weaknesses of the human psyche.
  The mythology of other cultures and societies reveal the underlying traits of their respective cultures just as Aesop's fables did. The stories of Roman gods, Aztec ghosts and European elves all served to train ancient generations those lessons considered most important to their community, and today they offer a powerful looking glass by which to evaluate and consider the contextual environment in which those culture existed.
  31. The author appears to view fables as ______.
  [A] the most interesting and valuable form of mythology
  [B] entertaining yet serious subjects of study
  [C] a remnant tool of past civilizations, but not often used in the modern age
  [D] the primary method by which ancient values and ideas were transmitted between generations
  32. The way that fables were used in the past is most similar to today's ______.
  [A] fairy tales that entertain children at home
  [B] stories in children's school textbooks that reinforce the lesson
  [C] science documentaries that explain how nature works
  [D] movies that depict animals as having human characteristics
  33. The main purpose of paragraph 3 is to ______.
  [A] examine how one of Aesop's fables sheds light on certain facets of Greek belief
  [B] dissect one of Aesop's fables in order to study the elements that make up Greek mythology
  [C] learn from the lesson presented in one of Aesop's most well-known fables
  [D] illustrate a fable typical of Aesop's style, so as to examine how one goes about studying the meaning behind it
  34. The author names the Roman, Aztec and European cultures in order to ______.
  [A] identify other cultures in which fables were the primary method by which to pass on traditions and values
  [B] explicitly name the various types of characters in those culture's fables
  [C] stress that mythology was used by cultures other than the Greeks to convey societal morals
  [D] establish them, in addition to the Greeks, as the societies most notable for their mythology
  35. The main point of this text is ______.
  [A] Aesop's fables provide a valuable glimpse into early Greek thought and beliefs
  [B] the most efficient and reliable way to study the values system of an ancient culture is through study of its mythology
  [C] without a thorough examination of a society's fables and other mythology, a cultural study on that society would be only partial
  [D] through the study of a culture's mythological tradition, one can discern some of the underlying beliefs that shaped those stories
  Text 4
  Much has been written about poverty but none of the accounts seem to get at the root of the problem. It must be noted that the debilitating effects of poverty are not only the result of lack of money but are also the result of powerlessness.The poor are subject to their social situation instead of being able to affect it through action,that is,through behavior that flows from an individual's decisions and plans. In other words,when social scientists have reported on the psychological consequences of poverty,it seems reasonable to believe that they have described the psychological consequences of powerlessness. The solution to poverty most frequently suggested is to help the poor secure more money without otherwise changing the present power relationships. This appears to implement the idea of equality while avoiding any unnecessary threat to the established centers of power. But since the consequences of poverty are related to powerlessness,not to the absolute supply of money available to the poor,and since the amount of power purchasable with a given supply of money decreases as a society acquires a large supply of goods and services,the solution of raising the incomes of the poor is likely,unless accompanied by other measures,to be ineffective in a wealthy society.
  In order to reduce poverty — related psychological and social problems in the United States,the major community will have to change its relationship to neighborhoods of poverty in such fashion that families in the neighborhoods have a greater interest in the broader society and can more successfully participate in the decision-making process of the surrounding community. Social action to help the poor should have the following characteristics:the poor should see themselves as the source of the action;the action should effect in major ways the preconceptions of institutions and persons who define the poor;the action should demand much in effect or skill;the action should be successful and the successful self-originated important action should increase the feeling of potential worth and individual power of individuals who are poor.
  The only initial resource which a community should provide to neighborhoods of poverty should be on a temporary basis and should consist of organizers who will enable the neighborhoods quickly to create powerful,independent,democratic organizations of the poor. Through such organizations,the poor will then negotiate with the outsiders for resources and opportunities without having to submit to concurrent control from outside.
  36. By“powerless”(sentence 2,Para 1),the author most probably means that the poor__________.
  [A] have no right to make individual decisions and plans
  [B] can not exercise control over other groups of people
  [C] are not in a condition to change their present situation
  [D] are too weak to resist any social situation imposed on them
  37. The author expresses his opinion in the first paragraph that _________.
  [A] the hopeless condition of the poor is caused by their powerlessness rather than lack of money
  [B] great efforts should be made to help poor to secure more money without changing present power relationships
  [C] it is no use raising the incomes of the poor while not improve their state of powerlessness
  [D] in helping the poor attention should be paid to avoiding any unnecessary threat to the established centers of power
  38. According to the author,the primary role of the major community in helping the neighborhoods of poverty is _______.
  [A] to provide long-term assistance from outside
  [B] to offer necessary opportunities of securing more money
  [C] to carry out more social programs in the neighborhoods
  [D] to lend experienced advice in the formation of democratic self-help organizations
  39. What does the word“concurrent”(Para. 3)most probably mean?
  [A] Following.
  [B] Subsequent.
  [C] Previous.
  [D] Simultaneous.
  40. The main purpose of the author in writing the passage is _______.
  [A] to criticize the present methods employed to help the poor
  [B] to analyze the social and psychological aspects of poverty
  [C] to propose a way in which the poor can be more effectively helped
  [D] to describe the attitude of the community towards the poor
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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Directions:
  In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A – G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
  Should doctor-assisted suicide ever be a legal option? It involves the extreme measure of taking the life of a terminally ill patient when the patient is in extreme pain and the chances for recovery appear to be hopeless. Those who argue against assisted suicide do so by considering the roles of the patient, the doctor, and nature in these situations.
  Should the patient take an active role in assisted suicide? When a patient is terminally ill and in great pain, those who oppose assisted suicide say that it should not be up to that patient to decide what his or her fate will be.(41)___________________________________________.
  What role should the doctor have? Doctors, when taking the Hippocratic oath, swear to preserve life at all costs, and it is their ethical and legal duty to follow both the spirit and the letter of this oath. It is their responsibilities to heal the sick, and in the cases when healing is not possible, then the doctor is obliged to make the dying person comfortable. Doctors are trained never to hasten death. (42)___________________________________________. Doctors are also, by virtue of their humanness, capable of making mistakes. Doctors could quite possibly say, for instance, that a cancer patient was terminal, and then the illness could later turn out not to be so serious. There is always an element of doubt concerning the future outcome of human affairs.(43)________________________________________.
  These general concerns of those who oppose assisted suicide are valid in certain contexts of the assisted-suicide question. For instance, patients cannot always be certain of their medical conditions. Pain clouds judgment, and so the patient should not be the sole arbiter of her or his own destiny. Patients do not usually choose the course of their medical treatment, so they shouldn't be held completely responsible for decisions related to it. Doctors are also fallible, and it is understandable that they would not want to make the final decision about when death should occur. (44)__________________________________________.
  I believe that blindly opposing assisted suicide does no one a service. If someone is dying of cancer and begging to be put out of his or her misery, and someone gives that person a deadly dose of morphine that seems merciful rather than criminal. If we can agree to this, then I think we could also agree that having a doctor close by measuring the dosage and advising the family and friends is a reasonable request. (45)____________________________________________.
  Life is indeed precious, but an inevitable part of life is death, and it should be precious, too. If life has become an intolerable pain and intense suffering, then it seems that in order to preserve dignity and beauty, one should have the right to end her or his suffering quietly, surely, and with family and friends nearby.
  [A] If one simply withholds treatment, it may take the patient longer to die, and so he may suffer more than he would if more direct action were taken and a lethal injection given.
  [B] The third perspective to consider when thinking about assisted suicide is the role of nature. Life is precious. Many people believe that it is not up to human beings to decide when to end their own or another's life. Only nature determines when it is the right time for a person to die. To assist someone in suicide is not only to break criminal laws, but to break divine laws as well.
  [C] Since doctors are trained to prolong life, they usually do not elect to take it by prescribing assisted suicide.
  [D] There are greater powers at work that determine when a person dies, for example, nature. Neither science nor personal preference should take precedence over these larger forces.
  [E] Without the doctor’s previous treatment, the person would surely be dead already. Doctors have intervened for months or even years, so why not sanction this final, merciful intervention?
  [F] There is no single, objectively correct answer for everyone as to when, if at all, one’s life becomes all things considered a burden and unwanted. If self-determination is a fundamental value, then the great variability among people on this question makes it especially important that individuals control the manner, circumstances, and timing of their death and dying.
  [G] Those who oppose assisted suicide believe that doctors who do help terminally ill patients die are committing a crime, and they should be dealt with accordingly.
  Sample Two
  Directions:
  The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For questions 41 – 45, you are requirec to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A – G to fill in each numbered box. Two paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1(10 points)
  [A] This work, though, were relatively small-scale. Now, a much larger study has found that discrimination plays a role in the pay gap between male and female scientists at British universities.
  [B] Besides pay, her study also looked at the "glass-ceiling" effect -- namely that at all stages of a woman's career she is less likely than her male colleagues to be promoted. Between postdoctoral and lecturer level, men are more likely to be promoted than women are, by a factor of between 1.04 and 2.45. Such differences are bigger at higher grades, with the hardest move of all being for a woman' to settle into a professorial chair.
  [C] Seven years ago, a group of female scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology produced a piece of research showing that senior women professors in the institute's school of science had lower salaries and received fewer resources for research than their male counterparts did. Discrimination against female scientists has cropped up elsewhere. One study—conducted in Sweden, of all places—showed that female medical-research scientists had to be twice as good as men to win research grants.
  [D] Sara Connolly, a researcher at the University of East Anglia's school of economics, has been analyzing the results of a survey of over 7,000 scientists and she has just presented her findings at this year's meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in Norwich. She found that the average pay gap between male and female academics working in science, engineering and technology is around £ 1,500 ($ 2,850) a year.
  [E] To prove the point beyond doubt, Dr Connolly worked out how much of the overall pay differential was explained by differences such as seniority, experience and age, and how much was unexplained, and therefore suggestive of discrimination. Explicable differences amounted to 77% of the overall pay gap between the sexes. That still left a substantial 23% gap in pay, which Dr Connolly attributes to discrimination.
  [F] That is not, of course, irrefutable proof of discrimination. An alternative hypothesis is that the courses of men's and women's lives mean the gap is caused by something else; women taking "career breaks" to have children, for example, and thus rising more slowly through the hierarchy. Unfortunately for that idea, Dr Connolly found that men are also likely to earn more within any given grade of the hierarchy. Male professors, for example, earn over £ 4,000 a year more than female ones.
  [G] Of course, it might be that, at each grade, men do more work than women, to make themselves more eligible for promotion. But that explanation, too, seems to be wrong. Unlike the previous studies, Dr Connolly's compared the experience of scientists in universities with that of those in other sorts of laboratory. It turns out that female academic researchers face more barriers to promotion, and have a wider gap between their pay and that of their male counterparts, than do their sisters in industry or research institutes independent of universities. Private enterprise, in other words, delivers more equality than the supposedly egalitarian world of academia does.
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 15:55:43 | 显示全部楼层

                        
Directions:
  You are going to read a text about the introduction on how to pay in the future, followed by a list of examples. Choose the best example from the list A – F for each numbered subheading (41 - 45). There is one extra example which you do use. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 (10 points)
  Smart cards and mobile phones are quickly emerging as ways to pay with electronic cash.
  41. A cash call.
  42. Sending money home
  43. Energising money
  44. How to pay in Tokyo
  45. Flashing the plastic
  [A] The various "contactless" payment systems rely on a technology called "near-field communication" (NFC). But mobile phones can be much smarter. They can be de-activated remotely; they have a screen which can show information, like a credit balance and product information; they have a keyboard to enter information and they can communicate. This means they can also be used to authorise larger payments by entering PIN codes directly on the handset or topped up with stored credit from an online bank account without having to go to an ATM.
  [B] A decade ago some observers predicted that internet banking would render retail banking from high-street branches obsolete. But JPMorgan, Bank of America and others are adamant that people are nowadays using bank branches more than ever. Even if the phone and the smart card replace cash, who gets to collect the fees remains open to contention.
  [C] More banking services are also being offered on mobiles. On February 12th, 19 telephone operators with networks in over 100 countries said that people would be able to use their handsets to send money abroad. MasterCard will operate the system in which remittances will be sent as text messages. Sir John Bond, formerly chairman of the HSBC banking group and now chairman of Vodafone, has long been convinced that payments and mobiles would somehow converge. "Mobile phones have the ability to make a dramatic change to village life in Africa," he says.
  [D] Unlike the Japanese, Americans prefer to use plastic for their purchases. Cards account for more than half of all transactions, up from 29% a decade ago, according to Nilson Report. More than 1.5 billion credit cards are stuffed into Americans' wallets. The average household has more than ten. Banks and credit-card firms hope to convert more cash and cheque payments to plastic with new smart cards. Some versions are already very successful. Many Americans use EasyPass, in which drivers pay for highway tolls wirelessly.
  [E] Nowadays, some of the hottest nightclubs have a new trick for checking the identity of their VIP guests: they send an entry pass in the form of a super bar code to their mobile phones. Mobile phones are becoming an increasingly popular way to make all sorts of payments. In America fans of the Atlanta Hawks have been testing specially adapted Nokia handsets linked to their Visa cards to enter their local stadium and to buy refreshments. It reckons worldwide payments using mobile phones will climb from just $ 3.2 billion in 2003 to more than $ 37 billion by 2008.
  [F]To see the potential of mobile-phone money, start in Japan. Most Japanese have at least one credit card, but they tend to stay in their owners' pockets. Housewives routinely peel off crisp YI0 000 ($ 82) notes to pay for their shopping. Utility bills and other invoices are dutifully taken to the bank and paid in cash, or more likely these days at the local convenience store. Yet despite the popularity of cash, the mobile phone is starting to change even Japan's traditional habits."
  Sample Four
  Directions:
  You are going to read a list of headings and a text about AIDS. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45). There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
  [A] What route does HIV take after it enters the body to destroy the immune system?
  [B] How and when did the long-standing belief concerning AIDS and HIV crop up?
  [C] What is the most effective anti-HIV therapy?
  [D] How does HIV subvert the immune system?
  [E] In the absence of a vaccine, how can HIV be stopped?
  [F] Why does AIDS predispose infected persons to certain types of cancer and infections?
  In the 20 years since the first cases of AIDS were detected, scientists say they have learned more about this viral disease than any other.
  Yet Peter Piot, who directs the United Nations AIDS program, and Stefano Vella of Rome, president of the International AIDS Society, and other experts say reviewing unanswered questions could prove useful as a measure of progress for AIDS and other diseases.
  41.________
  Among the important broader scientific questions that remain:
  A long-standing belief is that cancer cells constantly develop and are held in check by a healthy immune system. But AIDS has challenged that belief. People with AIDS are much more prone to certain cancers like non-Hodgkins lymphomas and Kaposi's sarcoms, but not to breast, colon and lung, the most common cancers in the United States. This pattern suggests that an impaired immune system, at least the type that occurs in AIDS, does not allow common cancers to develop.
  42.________
  When HIV is transmitted sexually, the virus must cross a tissue barrier to enter the body. How that happens is still unclear. The virus might invade directly or be carried by a series of different kinds of cells.
  43.________
  Eventually HIV travels through lymph vessels to lymph nodes and the rest of the lymph system. But what is not known is how the virus proceeds to destroy the body's CD-4 cells that are needed to combat invading infectious agents.
  44.________
  Although HIV kills the immune ceils sent to kill the virus, there is widespread variation in the rate at which HIV infected people become ill with AIDS. So scientists ask: Can the elements of the immune system responsible for that variability be identified? If so, can they be used to stop progression to AIDS in infected individuals and possibly prevent infection in the first place?
  In theory, early treatment should offer the best chance of preserving immune function. But the new drugs do not completely eliminate HIV from the body so the medicines, which can have dangerous side effects, will have to be taken for a lifetime and perhaps changed to combat resistance. The new policy is expected to recommend that treatment be deferred until there are signs the immune system is weakening.
  Is a vaccine possible?
  45.________
  There is little question that an effective vaccine is crucial to controlling the epidemic. Yet only one has reached the stage of full testing, and there is wide controversy over the degree of protection it will provide. HIV strains that are transmitted in various areas of the world differ genetically. It is not known whether a vaccine derived from one type of HIV will confer protection against other types.
  Without more incisive, focused behavioral research, prevention messages alone will not put an end to the global epidemic.
  Part C
  Directions:
  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlines segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 16:11:24 | 显示全部楼层

                        
Directions:
  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlines segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.
  One of the most fashionable treatments for disease, gene therapy, has so far made little headway in tackling one of the most modish of illnesses, AIDS and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes it. (46)The idea of gene-therapy treatment for HIV/AIDS would be to create a gene that, when placed in an infected person, would make all of the offspring of the cell into which it was inserted resistant to the virus. Even if the virus continued to destroy the patient's immune cells, new ones that could not be infected would replace them. Eventually, the disease would no longer threaten the health of the patient.
  A first step towards this has been achieved by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania and VIRxSYS, a biotechnology firm based near Baltimore. (47)Rather than inserting a gene directly, they removed the immune cells from people and replaced them with versions that had been modified to resist the virus. The results were published in this week's issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
  The team treated five infected patients who had not responded to at least two different programmes of treatment using conventional anti-retroviral drugs. They removed from each patient's blood the cells called “helper T-cells” that would normally mobilise the immune response to the virus. (48)These were purified and stuffed with a form of HIV that had been altered to carry a mirror image or “antisense” version of a molecule that enables it to multiply. This genetic fiddling disrupted the reproduction of the virus inside infected cells.
  Such a small experiment was designed merely to establish whether the approach was safe. But the researchers were pleasantly surprised to find that the number of viruses in each patient dropped. This suggests that the treatment was tackling the disease effectively in difficult patients for whom conventional drugs had failed. (49)According to Carl June of the University of Pennsylvania, their immune systems responded “as if they were on a vaccine” and it appeared as though their bodies were “vaccinating themselves” against HIV.
  The researchers are now moving to the next phase of study, which will involve more patients, including those whose disease is in its early stages. (50)If later trials confirm the early positive results, this approach could prove a useful complement to existing drugs or a future vaccine—and may even replace them.
  Part C
  Second III Writing
  Part A
  51. Directions:
  You have just learned that your friend Joe had his ankles injured and was in hospital now. Write a letter to him to convey your concern about his injury.
  You should write about 100 words. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter, using "Li Ming" instead. (10 points)
  Part B
  52. Directions:
  Study the following cartoon carefully and write an essay in which you should
  1) Describe the cartoon,
  2) deduce the purpose of the drawer of the picture, and
  3) give your comments.
  You should write about 160-200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 17:30:11 | 显示全部楼层

                        
2011年考研英语模拟试题答案详细解析
  Section I Use of English
  1. [答案] C 本题考查逻辑关系
  [解析]“许多人担心手机及通信基站的辐射会对身体有害”和“缺乏可靠证据”两个分句之间是转折关系,[C]despite的意思是“尽管,不管”,表转折,符合题意。[D]and表并列,虽也说得通,但没有[C]despite贴切。 [A] so表结果,[B]even表递进,均不符合题意。
  2. [答案] B 本题考查语义搭配
  [解析]上文提到许多人担心手机及通信基站的辐射会对身体有害但缺乏可靠证据,下文提到研究者已经汇总了手机有利健康的案例并将其分类,可见关于手机对健康有益的证据是越来越多,[B]abundant的意思是“丰富的,充裕的”,符合题意。从下文内容可以知道研究人员汇总了150条手机短信用于提供医疗保健服务的事例,说明证据是丰富的,而[C]clear“明显的,清晰的”,不符合题意。[A]interesting和[D]reasonable不符合题意。
  3. [答案] C 本题考查语义搭配
  [解析]此处意思是“一篇系统性综述是由研究者撰写的”,而[C] performed的意思是carried out“进行(实验等)”,符合题意。
  4. [答案] D 本题考查语义搭配
  [解析] 这句分句的主语是a systematic review,研究人员进行研究和撰写系统性综述时必须摆事实、讲道理,没有实例,其研究结论也站不住脚,故[D]examples“实例,例证,例子”符合题意。 [B]situations“情形”具有迷惑性,但从整个句子来看,“150个事例”更有说服力。 [A]approaches“方法”和[C]problems“问题”均不符合题意。
  5. [答案] C 本题考查语义搭配
  [解析] 根据句意可知此处指的是发送医疗保健服务的短信,而[C]delivery的意思是“递送,投递,交付”,符合题意。 [D]discovery“发现”,文中所指并不是发现短信,而是发送短信,故不正确。 [A]reality“事实”和[B]reorganization“重新组织”均不合题意。
  6. [答案] A 本题考查语义搭配
  [解析] [A]fall into的意思是“分成,变成”,文中意思是“根据用途可以把短信分为三类”,下文即具体列出三类用途;故[A]fall into符合题意。 [B]sum up的意思是“概括,总结”,往往指归纳观点和证词。 [C]associate with“联系起来”和[D]subject to“征服,遭受”均不符合题意,排除。
  7. [答案] B 本题考查形近词辨析
  [解析]incorporate 的意思是“ 包含,吸收”,通常与介词in或者into搭配。本句话的意思是“通过将短信与治疗方案进行整合”。
  8. [答案] B 本题考查语义搭配
  [解析] 这一段的第二句举了英国的几项试验:短信提醒功能将手机用户同家庭医生的约会错过率降低了26%到39%,同医院的约会错过率则减少了33%到50%,由此可以推断编发短信可以提高工作效率, [B] boost“增强(某事物)的力量,提高(某事物)的价值”符合题意。[A]rise具有很大的迷惑性,它也有提高的含义,但其是不及物动词,后应接介词,所以排除。 [C] produce“生产”和[D]encourage“鼓励”均不符合题意。
  9. [答案]D 本题考查语义搭配
  [解析] 句子中的数据只有根据试验才能获得,[D]trials“(对能力、质量、性能等的)测试、试验、考验”符合题意。 [C]cases的意思是“事例”,只通过一些事例,是不能得到精确的数据的,只有通过试验才可以获得。 [A]questions“问题”和[B]incidents“事件”均不符合题意,排除。
  10. [答案] A 本题考查语义搭配
  [解析] 上文提到利用编发短信来提高工作效率,也就是降低了错过率,[A]reduces“减少”符合题意。 [B]degrades的意思是“降级,下降”,但一般指降低身份;[D]drops的意思是“降落,使 (某物)落下”,均不符合题意。 [C]deserves“应得,值得”不符合题意。
  11. [答案] C 本题考查语义搭配
  [解析]在这个条件状语从句中需要补充完整的是such schemes的动作,[C]rolled out的意思是to make a new product available for people to buy or use=launch“推出,推开,发行,启动”,符合题意。[A]called upon的意思是“号召,呼吁”,号召的对象通常是人,而不是such schemes,故不入选。 [B]switched to“转向”和[D]went through“经历,仔细检查”均不符合题意。
  12. [答案] A 本题考查动词与介词的搭配
  [解析]translate into意为“翻译成、转化为”故[A]into符合题意。[B]for、[C]on、[D]from均不与translate搭配,排除。
  13. [答案] D 本题考查定语从句。
  [解析] groups在这里的意思是“人群”,需要填一个关系代词或关系副词以引导定语从句修饰groups,修饰人的关系代词是[D]who。 [C]which常用于修饰某物,所以排除。 [A]what相当于the thing that/the things that,[B]whose是修饰物的所有格,均不符合题意,排除。
  14. [答案] B 本题考查动词与介词的搭配
  [解析] 这句话意思是“印度已使用短信______国际卫生组织的结核病防控策略”,[B]inform“通知或报告某人(某事),告诉某人”符合题意。[D]contact表示“接触,交往”,不符合文意。 [A]ask“询问”和[C]adopt“采用”均不符合题意,排除。
  15. [答案] A 本题考查动词与介词的搭配
  [解析] 上文阐述了手机短信也是传播公共卫生信息的一个好途径,可应用于为儿童接种疫苗的行动中,[A]campaign“运动(为某一社会的、商业的或政治的目的而进行的一系列有计划的活动)”符合题意。[B]event尤指重要的大事,事件,不符合题意;[C]decision“决定、结果”看似正确,但不能表达句子完整的意思,排除。[D]communication“通讯”不符合题意,排除。
  16. [答案] C 本题考查介词用法
  [解析]此处意思应该是预防children患上polio,而[C]against有in preparation for(sth.)“为…做准备”之意,符合题意。[A]off、[B]with、[D]in均不符合题意,排除。
  17. [答案] A 本题考查逻辑关系
  [解析] 文章的第一段讲述了手机短信的三类用途。第二、三段分别是手机短信的第一、第二个功能,那么第三段应该就是最后一个功能,[A]Finally“最后”符合题意,入选。 [B]However“然而,可是”,表转折,但文章此处并无转折含义,故排除;文章第一段提出短信的这些用途可以分为三类,下面三段分别阐述一种短信的用途,如选[D]Obviously“明显地”,就不能体现文章的逻辑结构。 [C]Usually“通常”不符合题意,排除。
  18. [答案] D 本题考查固定搭配。
  [解析] “服药”的惯用表达是take medicine,故[D]take符合题意,入选。[A]buy、[B]receive、[C]get与medicine搭配都不能表示“服药”的意思,排除。
  19. [答案] C 本题考查语义搭配
  [解析] However表转折,说明有关这些手机短信作用效果的例证还不完全可信,[C]anecdotal“多趣闻轶事的,轶事一样的”,anecdotal evidence在心理学上称为“轶事证据”,即粗浅的证据,经常以故事形式出现:比如“我记得那时…”,“我听说…”,这种证据通常不准确、不可靠,故[C]anecdotal符合题意。 [A]unscientific“不科学的”虽然放进句子中也通顺,但需要进一步的定量研究,去证明这些作用是否科学,而不是过早地下定论,故[A]排除。 如选[B]real“真实的”或[D]legal“合法的”,说明有关这些作用效果的例证是真实的或是合法的,而这样的例证是不需要进一步定量研究的,故二者不符合题意,排除。
  20. [答案] C本题考查语义搭配[解析]最后一句话中里法特提出更多定量研究是______,[C]needed“需要的”符合题意。 [A]gained和[B]acquired的意思都是“获得的”,放进句子意思不对。[D]given“给予的、特定的”不符合题意,排除。
  全文翻译
  手机对使用者健康会产生什么样的影响呢?许多人担心手机手持装置及通信基站的辐射会对身体有害,不过始终缺乏可靠依据,而关于手机对健康有益的证据却越来越多。的确,在伦敦皇家学院里法特?亚顿及其同事撰写的一篇系统性综述中,就汇总了150条手机短信用于提供医疗保健服务的事例。短信的这些用途可以分为三类,即提高工作效率、促进公共卫生宣传以及通过将短信与治疗方案进行整合直接惠及病人。
  利用编发短信来提高工作效率并不是多么高深的科学,但是能节省大笔费用。比如,英国有几项试验发现,短信提醒功能将同家庭医生的约会错过率降低了26%到39%,同医院的约会错过率则减少了33%到50%。设若这种短信提醒系统能推广到全国,则相当于每年节省2.56~3.64亿英镑。
  手机短信也是传播公共卫生信息的一个好途径,对那些通过其他方式难以传达到的人群,比如青少年,或者是在没有其他通信手段的发展中国家,更是如此。比如,印度已使用短信来宣传国际卫生组织的结核病防控策略。在伊拉克,短信则被用来声援一项给将近5百万的儿童接种天花疫苗的行动。
  最后,手机短信还可作为治疗方案的一部分,其中包括提醒病人适时服药、督促病人按要求进行锻炼。然而,里法特强调,有关这些作用效果的例证一般都是道听途说来的,尚需进一步定量研究
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
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2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
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发表于 2018-12-8 19:07:54 | 显示全部楼层

                        
Section II Reading Comprehension
  Text 1
  21. [答案] B
  [解析]推理题。第一句提到的谨慎投资者的想法是一种类比,把鸡蛋放到多个篮子里可以减少风险,说的是规避风险的方法,而第二句切入主题,环保主义者认为保护濒危动物也可以采取与此类似的方法,因此选项[B]正确。文中并没有说环保主义者的想法是从投资者那里得到的启发,排除[A];选项 [C]、[D]也不是由此推出的,均排除。
  22. [答案] A
  [解析]细节题。第二段介绍埃塞俄比亚狼共两句话,主要指出它是濒危动物,是世界上最少的食肉动物,选项[A]是同义转述,故正确。第二段 第一句只是提到它以上段叙述的方式被分成小组,但没有具体的数字,选项[B]错误;定语从句指出它住在贝尔山脉的草地中,可见选项[C]错误;第二句介绍贝尔山脉中有350只,另外还有150只在这一地区外面,所以共有500只,因此[D]错误。
  23. [答案] C
  [解析]推理题。题干中的想法出现在第三段最后一句,从implies一词可知其理由是破折号之间的 thinking的同位语,即所有个体都很重要,任何疾病的发作都要被完全制止,因此选项[C]符合文意。选项[A]的内容只是客观事实,不是这一想法的原因;第三句提到给狼群注射疫苗看似简单,但其实不然,排除[B];第四段第一句介绍了Dan Haydon的观点,显然与题干相对,说明他不赞同这一想法,排除 [D]。
  24. [答案] C
  [解析]推理题。最后两段主要介绍了流行病学家的设想和Dr Haydon的研究,他们的观点正好相反,首先排除[B],选项[A]在第五段第一、二句提及,文中说的是三分之二需要注射疫苗而不是三分之一;选项[D]是对最后一段第一句的断章取义;选项[C]则是对第五段最后一句的正确理解,故选[C]。
  25. [答案] D
  [解析]主旨题。全文从一开头就将分散避险的方法提出来,然后具体讨论了保护埃塞俄比亚狼免受狂犬病威胁的办法,最后一句重申了解救少数可以更有效地保护多数的观点,因此本文的主要目的是介绍如何保护埃塞俄比亚狼的方法,故选[D]。其他选项都是片面的。
  全文翻译
  谨慎的投资者很早以前就学会通过分散投资来降低风险。自然资源保护者最近偶然得出一个相似的想法:将濒危物种的种群划入几个互相联系的亚种群将增加它们的存活率。此举将为该物种带来更好的前景,因为各亚种群的成员同时灭亡的可能性较低。而且,从长期看来,就算物种的一两个亚种群消失了也无关紧要,因为那些来自食物充沛之地的“新移民”最终将重建物种原有的生境。
  埃塞俄比亚狼(Ethiopian wolf)就是根据此种方式分群而居的濒危物种之一。它们是世界上最珍稀的食肉动物,居住在贝尔山脉(Bale Mountains)的高地草场上。在贝尔山国家公园的三块由狭窄峡谷相联接的袖珍草场之上,仅存活着350余只埃塞俄比亚狼,另有150余只生存在其他地区。
  埃塞俄比亚狼群所面临的主要威胁有两类来自于家犬所携带的疾病。其中之一为狂犬病,尤为令人担忧,因为这是家犬种群的常见疾病。乍一看来,为狼群注射防狂犬病疫苗是一种简单的办法。不过这个想法未免脱离实际,因为人们普遍认为,每一匹狼都很紧要,因此应当避免狂犬病在任何一匹狼体内爆发,而这意味着将要为大量狼群注射疫苗。
  格拉斯哥大学(University of Glasgow)的丹·何顿(Dan Haydon)及其同事认为,保育生物学家(conservation biologist)们的想法应该不同。除人类以外,种群比个体来得重要。疾病在某些个体中爆发是可以接受的。本周刊登于《自然(Nature)》杂志的一篇论文称,他们基于上述想法,重新提出了计算疫苗接种数的数学方法。
  根据流行病学的标准假设:以个体来计算,要阻止流行病的爆发,疫苗接种方案要确保平均每个受感染的动物将疾病传播给其他健康的动物的数量少于一。这就意味着约有三分之二的狼群需要接受疫苗。但若某方案目的是拯救某个物种而非该物种中所有个体,它将允许上述疾病传播数量多于一,从而减少需要接受疫苗的狼群数量。何顿博士和他的同事曾采用2003年狂犬病爆发的数据进行计算,结果表明,如果兽医为那些居住在连接各分部狼群的峡谷中的狼注射疫苗,那么大约10%到25%的狼群接受疫苗就足够了。
  如果对居住于峡谷内的所有狼群每五年开展一次狂犬病治疗,在20年内,埃塞俄比亚狼种灭亡的可能性将降低四倍。如果,在这一做法的基础之上,再加上对三个相互联结的草场内仅10%的狼群注射疫苗,埃塞俄比亚狼种灭亡的可能性将减至低于千分之一。拯救某物种的少量个体看来是保护该物种大部分个体的有效之道。
  Text 2
  26. [答案] D
  [解析]细节题。第一段的第二、三句话指出“电信费用大幅度下降,使身处遥远地点的工作者与发达世界的客户连接在一起。这能够把以前无法进行交易的服务推向海外”。可见电信方面的因素起了一定的作用。故本题的正确选项应该是D。在阅读时要注意借助于指代词理清上下句之间的关系。
  27. [答案] D
  [解析]细节题。文章第二段首句中的“standard”一词的含义不是“标准的”,而是“常见的、一般的、典型的”。本句的大意是:“对上述论点的典型的(或常见的)反驳是向海外外包服务太微不足道了以至于不会有多大影响”。由此可以推断本题的正确选项应该是D。
  28. [答案] C
  [解析]推理题。第二段的第三句对“Forrester Research”的相关预测进行了介绍。第二段尾句(即第四句)针对“Forrester Research”的预测指出了其中的问题(trouble)之所在。第二段尾句的大意是:“问题在于这样的研究仅考虑到那些已经被移往境外的工作……”。由此可以推断本题的正确选项应该是C。
  29. [答案] B
  [解析]推理题。本题的答案可以从第三段的尾句、第四段的尾句和尾段的第一、二句中推理得出。第三段的尾句涉及“wages”,第四段的尾句涉及“median wage”和“average wages”,尾段第一、二句涉及“pay gap”以及“the middle-income group”等相关词语。由此可以推断本题的正确选项是B。
  30. [答案] D
  [解析]主旨题。本题的答案信息分布在全文的字里行间,但是最关键的信息在全文首段的第一句(即全文的中心主旨句)。首段第一句的大意是:“目前,被外包到海外的不只是蓝领工作,过去被认为不会受国外竞争影响的白领工作也正在被外包到海外”。由此可以推断本题的正确选项是D。
  全文翻译
  目前,被外包到海外的不只是蓝领工作,过去被认为不会受国外竞争影响的白领工作也正在被外包到海外。电信费用大幅度下降,使身处遥远地点的工作者与发达世界的客户连接在一起。这能够把以前无法进行交易的服务推向海外。Morgan Stanley的 Roach先生一直注意到这样一个事实,这就是“全球劳动力套利”正在转移到更好的工作种类上。不再仅仅是基本的数据处理和呼叫中心被外包给低工资国家,软件编程,医疗诊断,工程设计,法律,会计,金融和商业咨询也正在被外包给低工资国家。这些现在都可以从世界上任何地方电子化传送。这使得熟练的白领工人面临更大的竞争。
  对上述论点的典型的反驳是向海外外包服务太微不足道了以至于不会有多大影响。到目前为止接近100万个美国服务部门的工作已经丢到了境外。Forrester Research预测到2015年在服务部门总共会有340万份工作被转到国外,但是相对于美国每年消失和新创造的3000万个工作机会而言的确是非常少。问题在于这样的研究仅考虑到那些已经被移往境外的工作,但实际上能够被转移的工作的比率将会随着新兴国家的信息技术的发展以及教育的提高而上升。
  Princeton大学的经济学家Alan Blinder认为绝大部分的经济学家正在低估转移到境外的破坏性影响,而且在未来相当于制造业被转移的工作的两到三倍的服务业的工作也可能被转移。这可能意味着有至少30%的工作可能有风险。而事实上转移到中国或者印度的工作数目可能仍然相当少。即使如此,单就他们可能被转移的威胁就足以降低工资水平。
  而且,Blinder先生说到,教育并不能提供任何的保护。通过电子化传输,高技能的会计,放射学家或者计算机的编程员现在不得不参与到来自国外的的竞争。而粗俗的计程车司机,守卫和起重机驾驶员这些工作依然很安全不会有被移到海外的危险。这可能有助于解释为什么美国毕业生的中等真实工资水平自2000年以来已经下降了6% ,比一般工资水平下降的多。
  在20世纪80年代以及90年代早期,低收入低技能工人和高收入高技能工人之间的收入差距显著增大了。但是自从那时起,根据David Autor, Lawrence Katz和 Melissa Kearney的一项研究,在美国,英国和德国,底层和顶层的工人比中等收入的工人的表现要好。在印度,办公室清理找不到人手。现在类似于会计这种中等的而且其技能很容易被标准化的工作是被压榨的最厉害的。来自Washington, DC国际经济研究所的Bradford Jensen 和 Lori Kletzer的一项研究则肯定了暴露在外国竞争下的从事可贸易服务的工人势必比那些从事不可贸易的工人和可贸易的制造业工人的技能要求更高。
  Text 3
  31. [答案] B
  [解析]态度题。作者对寓言的评价需要综合分析,第一段第一句指出,了解一种文化中的神话传说可以为了解该文化中人们的信仰及价值观念提供极其重要的深刻见解,第三段最后一句提到这个故事以轻松的形式告诉读者或听众人心灵中的一个弱点,所以选项[B]是对寓言的最佳概括,为正确答案。选项[A]未提及;选项[C]转折句部分明显错误;选项[D]中的essential属于过度推断。
  32. [答案] B
  [解析]推理题。第一段第二句与题干对应,其中指出寓言是用来警戒后世的年轻人吸取前                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业
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