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发表于 2018-12-8 12:34:35 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  Section Ⅰ Use of English
      Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each
numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
      As former colonists of Great Britain, the Founding Fathers of the United
States adopted much of the legal system of Great Britain. We have a “common
law”, or law made by courts 1 a monarch or other central governmental 2 like a
legislature. The jury, a 3 of ordinary citizens chosen to decide a case, is an 4
part of our common-law system.
      Use of juries to decide cases is a 5 feature of the American legal system.
Few other countries in the world use juries as we do in the United States. 6 the
centuries, many people have believed that juries in most cases reach a fairer
and more just result 7 would be obtained using a judge 8 , as many countries do.
9 a jury decides cases after “ 10 ”, or discussions among a group of people, the
jury’s decision is likely to have the 11 from many different people from
different backgrounds, who must as a group decide what is right.
      Juries are used in both civil cases, which decide 12 among 13 citizens, and
criminal cases, which decide cases brought by the government 14 that individuals
have committed crimes. Juries are selected from the U.S. citizens and 15 .
Jurors, consisting of 16 numbers, are called for each case requiring a jury.
      The judge 17 to the case 18 the selection of jurors to serve as the jury
for that case. In some states, 19 jurors are questioned by the judge; in others,
they are questioned by the lawyers representing the 20 under rules dictated by
state law.
      1.[A]other than [B]rather than [C]more than [D]or rather
      2.[A]agency [B]organization [C]institution [D]authority
      3.[A]panel [B]crew [C]band [D]flock
      4.[A]innate [B]intact [C]integral [D]integrated
      5.[A]discriminating [B]distinguishing [C]determining [D]diminishing
      6.[A]In [B]By [C]After [D]Over
      7.[A]that [B]which [C]than [D]as
      8.[A]alike [B]alone [C]altogether [D]apart
      9.[A]Although [B]Because [C]If [D]While
      10.[A]deliberations [B]meditations [C]reflections [D]speculations
      11.[A]outline [B]outcome [C]input [D]intake
      12.[A]arguments [B]controversies [C]disputes [D]hostilities
      13.[A]fellow [B]individual [C]personal [D]private
      14.[A]asserting [B]alleging [C]maintaining [D]testifying
      15.[A]summoned [B]evoked [C]rallied [D]assembled
      16.[A]set [B]exact [C]given [D]placed
      17.[A]allocated [B]allotted [C]appointed [D]assigned
      18.[A]administers [B]manages [C]oversees [D]presides
      19.[A]inspective [B]irrespective [C]perspective [D]prospective
      20.[A]bodies [B]parties [C]sides [D]units
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 13:19:37 | 显示全部楼层

                        
      SectionⅡ Reading Comprehension
      Part A
      Directions: Read the following four texts .Answer the questions below each
text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40
points)
      Text One
      It’s plain common sense—the more happiness you feel, the less unhappiness
you experience. It’s plain common sense, but it’s not true. Recent research
reveals that happiness and unhappiness are not really two sides of the same
emotion. They are two distinct feelings that, coexisting, rise and fall
independently.
      People might think that the higher a person’s level of unhappiness, the
lower their level of happiness and vice versa. But when researchers measure
people’s average levels of happiness and unhappiness, they often find little
relationship between the two.
      The recognition that feelings of happiness and unhappiness can co-exist
much like love and hate in a close relationship may offer valuable clues on how
to lead a happier life. It suggests, for example, that changing or avoiding
things that make you miserable may well make you less miserable, but probably
won’t make you any happier. That advice is backed up by an extraordinary series
of studies which indicate that a genetic predisposition for unhappiness may run
in certain families. On the other hand, researchers have found happiness doesn’t
appear to be anyone’s heritage. The capacity for joy is a talent you develop
largely for yourself.
      Psychologists have settled on a working definition of the feeling—happiness
is a sense of subjective well-being. They have also begun to find out who’s
happy, who isn’t and why. To date, the research hasn’t found a simple formula
for a happy life, but it has discovered some of the actions and attitudes that
seem to bring people closer to that most desired of feelings.
      Why is unhappiness less influenced by environment? When we are happy, we
are more responsive to people and keep up connections better than when we are
feeling sad. This doesn’t mean, however, that some people are born to be sad and
that’s that. Genes may predispose one to unhappiness, but disposition can be
influenced by personal choice. You can increase your happiness through your own
actions.
      21. According to the text, it is true that
      [A] unhappiness is more inherited than affected by environment.
      [B] happiness and unhappiness are mutually conditional.
      [C] unhappiness is subject to external more than internal factors.
      [D] happiness is an uncontrollable subjective feeling.
      22. The author argues that one can achieve happiness by
      [A] maintaining it at an average level.
      [B] escaping miserable occurrences in life.
      [C] pursuing it with one’s painstaking effort.
      [D] realizing its coexistence with unhappiness.
      23. The phrase “To date” (Para. 4) can be best replaced by
      [A] As a result.
      [B] In addition.
      [C] At present.
      [D] Until now.
      24. What do you think the author believes about happiness and
unhappiness?
      [A] One feels unhappy owing to his miserable origin.
      [B] They are independent but existing concurrently
      [C] One feels happy by participating in more activities.
      [D] They are actions and attitudes taken by human beings.
      25. The sentence “That’s that” (Para. 5) probably means: Some people are
born to be sad
      [A] and the situation cannot be altered.
      [B] and happiness remains inaccessible.
      [C] but they don’t think much about it.
      [D] but they remain unconscious of it.
      Text Two
      What are the characteristics of a mediator? Foremost, the mediator needs to
be seen as a respected neutral, objective third party who is capable of weighing
out fairness in the resolution of a conflict. The mediator must be trusted by
both parties to come up with a solution that will protect them from shame. While
the central issue is justice, the outcome needs to be win-win, no losers. The
abilities to listen impartially, suspend judgment, and accurately gather and
assess information are other important characteristics. Finally, to function
effectively the mediator must have power (financial, status, position), so that
both parties will take seriously and abide by the mediator’s judgment. If one
party refused to cooperate, he or she should fear the possibility of being
shamed and losing face before the mediator and the whole community. If that real
possibility does not enter the minds of both parties, the mediator will be
ineffective.
      In several countries mediators are still used to find a bride for a man.
Usually this is a job for the parents, and they in turn employ the services of a
mediator. Because this event takes much planning, the parents will try to
identify the mediator well in advance. Since these services sometimes require
reward, money must be saved. Or in some cases parents try to do a number of
favors for the mediator so that he or she will feel indebtedness and perform the
service as a kind of repayment.
      The parents will try to get the most influential mediator possible, to
boost their chances of being approved by the potential bride’s parents. The
young woman’s parents will not want to risk shame by turning down a request from
such an important person—so the reasoning goes. Of course, the higher-ranked the
mediator, the higher the cost of the services.
      Complicating the process is the fact that turning down the mediator is also
a slight of the potential groom and his parents, which will likely generate
conflict between the families. If the parties are not careful, the entire
community can take sides. One way to alleviate this eventuality is for the young
woman’s family to identify a flaw that would make her a less desirable prospect.
They might say, “She is sickly.” or “She may not be able to bear children.”
Although none of these statements may be true, and probably everyone knows they
aren’t, they do provide a way for the young man’s parents to withdraw their
request for a perfectly legitimate reason. Everyone saves face, at least at the
surface, and peace is preserved.
      26. The characteristics of a mediator include all of the following
except
      [A] unbiased judgment of arguments.
      [B] hard prudence in decision-making.
      [C] impartial treatment to a conflict.
      [D] remarkable insight into controversies.
      27. The author deems it important for a mediator
      [A] to be quite wealthy and considerate.
      [B] to be powerful to shame either party.
      [C] to justify the solution of a conflict.
      [D] to have high status to fear arguers.
      28. In some courtiers, young people’ s marriage
      [A] is independent of their parents’ will.
      [B] needs careful valuation in advance.
      [C] costs a small fortune of their family.
      [D] is usually facilitated by a mediator.
      29. The request of the groom’s parents may be turned down unless
      [A] they manage to hire a qualified mediator.
      [B] they make their best choice at all risks.
      [C] the young woman’s parents want to lose face.
      D] the bride’ s parents dare to offend the mediator.
      30. It may be the best way to resolve a conflict for
      [A] the entire community to offer support.
      [B] a mediator to be identified by both sides.
      [C] the outcome of mediation to be acceptable.
      [D] a valid excuse to spare both sides’ blushes.
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 14:11:53 | 显示全部楼层

                        
      Text Three
      The Internet, like its network predecessors, has turned out to be far more
social than television, and in this respect, the impact of the Internet may be
more like that of the telephone than of TV. Our research has shown that
interpersonal communication is the dominant use of the Internet at home. That
people use the Internet mainly for interpersonal communication, however, does
not imply that their social interactions and relationships on the Internet are
the same as their traditional social interactions and relationships, or that
their social uses of the Internet will have effects comparable to traditional
social activity.
      Whether social uses of the Internet have positive or negative effects may
depend on how the Internet shapes the balance of strong and weak network ties
that people maintain. Strong ties are relationships associated with frequent
contact, deep feelings of affection and obligation, whereas weak ties are
relationships with superficial and easily broken bonds, infrequent contact, and
narrow focus. Strong and weak ties alike provide people with social support.
Weak ties including weak online ties, are especially useful for linking people
to information and social resources unavailable in people’s closest, local
groups. Nonetheless, strong social ties are the relationships that generally
buffer people from life’s stresses and that lead to better social and
psychological outcomes. People receive most of their social support from people
with whom they are in most frequent contact, and bigger favors come from those
with stronger ties.
      Generally, strong personal ties are supported by physical proximity. The
Internet potentially reduces the importance of physical proximity in creating
and maintaining networks of strong social ties. Unlike face-to-face interaction
or even the telephone, the Internet offers opportunities for social interactions
that do not depend on the distance between parties. People often use the
Internet to keep up with those with whom they have preexisting relationships.
But they also develop new relationships on-line. Most of these new relationships
are weak. MUDs, newsgroups, and chat rooms put people in contact with a pool of
new groups, but these on-line “mixers” are typically organized around specific
topics, or activities, and rarely revolve around local community and close
family and friends.
      Whether a typical relationship developed on-line becomes as strong as a
typical traditional relationship and whether having on-line relationships
changes the number or quality of a person’s total social involvements are open
questions. Empirical evidence about the impact of the Internet on relationships
and social involvement is sparse. Many authors have debated whether the Internet
will promote community or undercut it. Much of this discussion has been
speculative and anecdotal, or is based on cross-sectional data with small
samples.
      31. The text is mainly about
      [A] the dominance of interpersonal communication.
      [B] strong and weak personal ties over the Internet.
      [C] the difference between old and modern relationships.
      [D] an empirical research on the Internet and its impact.
      32. It is implied in the text that
      [A] the Internet interactions can rival traditional ones.
      [B] television is inferior to telephone in social effect.
      [C] strong links are far more valid than weak ones.
      [D] the Internet features every home and community.
      33. The word “buffer” (Para. 2) can probably be replaced by
      [A] deviate. [B] alleviate. [C] shield. [D] distract.
      34. According to the author, the Internet can
      [A] eliminate the hindrance of the distance.
      [B] weaken the intimate feelings among people.
      [C] provide people with close physical contacts.
      [D] enhance our ability to remove social stresses.
      35. From the text we can infer that
      [A] the evidence for the effect of the Internet seems abundant.
      [B] the social impact of the Internet has been barely studied enough.
      [C] some discussions are conclusive about the function of the Internet.
      [D] random samples have witnessed the positive influence of the
Internet.
      Text Four
      Leadership is hardly a new area of research, of course. For years,
academics have debated whether leaders are born or made, whether a person who
lacks charisma (capacity to inspire devotion and enthusiasm) can become a
leader, and what makes leaders fail. Warren G. Bennis, possibly the possibly the
world’s foremost expert on leading, has, together with his co-author, written
two best-sellers on the topic. Generally, researchers have found that you can’t
explain leadership by way of intelligence, birth order, family wealth or
stability, level of education, race, or sex. From one leader to the next,
there’s enormous variance in every one of those factors.
      The authors’ research led to a new and telling discovery: that every
leader, regardless of age, had undergone at least one intense, transformational
experience—what the authors call a “crucible” (severe test). These events can
either make you or break you. For emerging leaders, they do more making than
breaking, providing key lessons to help a person move ahead confidently.
      If a crucible helps a person to become leader, there are four essential
qualities that allow someone to remain one, according to the authors. They are:
an “adaptive capacity” that lets people not only survive inevitable setbacks,
heartbreaks, and difficulties but also learn from them; an ability to engage
others through shared meaning or a common vision; a distinctive and compelling
voice that communicates one’s conviction and desire to do the right thing; and a
sense of integrity that allows a leader to distinguish between good and
evil.
      That sounds obvious enough to be commonplace, until you look at some recent
failures that show how valid these dictums (formal statements of opinion) are.
The authors believe that former Coca-Cola Co. Chairman M. Douglas Ivester lasted
just 28 months because “his grasp of context was sorrowful.” Among other things,
Ivester degraded Coke’s highest-ranking African-American even as the company was
losing a $ 200 million class action brought by black employees. Procter &
Gamble Co. ex-CEO Durk Jager lost his job because he failed to communicate the
urgent need for the sweeping changes he was making.
      It’s striking, too, that the authors found their geezers (whose formative
period, as the authors define them,
      was 1945 to 1954, and who were shaped by World War II) sharing what they
believed to be a critical trait—the sense of possibility and wonder more often
associated with childhood. “Unlike those defeated by time and age, our geezers
have remained much like our geeks (who came of age between 1991 and 2000, and
grew up “virtual, visual, and digital”)— open, willing to take risks, hungry for
knowledge and experience, courageous, and eager to see what the new day brings”,
the authors write.
      36. The text indicates that leadership research
      [A] has been a controversial study for years.
      [B] predicts how a leader comes to be.
      [C] defines the likelihood to be a leader.
      [D] probes the mysteries of leadership.
      37. According to Bennis, the trait shared by leaders consists of
      [A] top levels of intelligence and education and devotion.
      [B] remarkable ability to encourage people with loyalty and hope.
      [C] striking qualities of going through serious trials and sufferings.
      [D] strong personalities that arouse admiration and confidence.
      38. The favorable effect of a crucible depends on whether a leader
      [A] proves himself/herself to be a newly emergent one.
      [B] accepts it as a useful experience for progress.
      [C] shrinks back from tiring and trying experiences.
      [D] draws important lessons for his/her followers.
      39. A leader can hardly maintain his/her position unless he/she
      [A] fulfils all necessary quality requirements.
      [B] helps people to prevent defeats and sorrows.
      [C] fails to attract people with common concerns.
      [D] lacks appealing and strength of character.
      40. The authors’ dictums can be justified by the fact that
      [A] Douglas Ivester defeated a highest-ranking black employee in a
suit.
      [B] Durk Jager was dismissed owing to his poor communicating ability.
      [C] Geezers couldn’t erase the brands stamped in childhood.
      [D] Geeks are sensible enough to meet dangers and challenges.
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 15:37:00 | 显示全部楼层

                        
      Part B
      Directions: You are going to read a list of headings and a text. Choose the
most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45). The
first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra
heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10
points)
      [A] Physical Changes
      [B] Low Self-Esteem
      [C] Emerging Independence and Search for Identity
      [D] Emotional Turbulence
      [E] Interest in the Opposite Sex
      [F] Peer Pressure and Conformity
      The transition to adulthood is difficult. Rapid physical growth begins in
early adolescence—typically between the ages of 9 and 13—and thought processes
start to take on adult characteristics. Many youngsters find these changes
distressing because they do not fully understand what is happening to them.
Fears and anxieties can be put to rest by simply keeping an open line of
communication and preparing for change before it occurs. The main issues that
arise during adolescence are:
      (41) __________
      A child’s self worth is particularly fragile during adolescence. Teenagers
often struggle with an overwhelming sense that nobody likes them, that they’re
not as good as other people, that they are failures, losers, ugly or
unintelligent.
      (42) __________
      Some form of bodily dissatisfaction is common among pre-teens. If
dissatisfaction is great, it may cause them to become shy or very easily
embarrassed. In other cases, teens may act the opposite—loud and angry—in an
effort to compensate for feelings of self-consciousness and inferiority. As
alarming as these bodily changes can be, adolescents may find it equally
distressing to not experience the changes at the same time as their peers. Late
maturation can cause feelings of inferiority and awkwardness.
      (43) __________
      Young people feel more strongly about everything during adolescence. Fears
become more frightening, pleasures become more exciting, irritations become more
distressing and frustrations become more intolerable. Every experience appears
king-sized during adolescence. Youngsters having a difficult adolescence may
become seriously depressed and/or engage in self-destructive behavior. Often,
the first clue that a teenager needs professional help is a deep-rooted shift in
attitude and behavior. Parents should be alert to the warning signs of
personality change indicating that a teenager needs help. They include repeated
school absences, slumping grades, use of alcohol or illegal substances, hostile
or dangerous behavior and extreme withdrawal and reclusiveness.
      (44) __________
      There is tremendous pressure on adolescents to conform to the standards of
their peers. This pressure toward conformity can be dangerous in that it applies
not only to clothing and hairstyles; it may lead them to do things that they
know are wrong.
      (45) __________
      Adolescence marks a period of increasing independence that often leads to
conflict between teenagers and parents. This tension is a normal part of growing
up—and for parents, a normal part of the letting-go process. Another normal part
of adolescence is confusion over values and beliefs. This time of questioning is
important as young people examine the values they have been taught and begin to
embrace their own beliefs. Though they may adopt the same beliefs as their
parents, discovering them on their own enables the young person to develop a
sense of integrity.
      Although adolescence will present challenges for young people and their
parents, awareness and communication can help pave the way for a smooth
transition into this exciting phase of life.
      Part C
      Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the
underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on
ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)
      Culture shock might be called an occupational disease of people who have
been suddenly transplanted abroad. Like most ailments, it has its own symptoms
and cure.
      Culture shock is precipitated by the anxiety that results from losing all
our familiar signs and symbols of social intercourse. Those signs or cues
include the thousand and one ways in which we orient ourselves to the situation
of daily life: when to shake hands and what to say when we meet people, when and
how to give tips, how to make purchases, when to accept and when to refuse
invitations, when to take statements seriously and when not. 46) These cues,
which may be words, gestures, facial expressions, customs, or norms, are
acquired by all of us in the course of growing up and are as much a part of our
culture as the language we speak or the beliefs we accept. 47) All of us depend
for our peace of mind and our efficiency on hundreds of these cues, most of
which we do not carry on the level of conscious awareness.
      Now when an individual enters a strange culture, all or most of these
familiar cues are removed. He or she is like a fish out of water. 48) No matter
how broad-minded or full of goodwill you may be, a series of props (支柱) have
been knocked from under you, followed by a feeling of frustration and anxiety.
People react to the frustration in much the same way. First they reject the
environment which causes the discomfort. “The ways of the host country are bad
because they make us feel bad.” 49) When foreigners in a strange land get
together to grouse about the host country and its people, you can be sure they
are suffering from culture shock. Another phase of culture shock is regression.
The home environment suddenly assumes a tremendous importance. To the foreigner
everything becomes irrationally glorified. All the difficulties and problems are
forgotten and only the good things back home are remembered. It usually takes
trip home to bring one back to reality.
      Individuals differ greatly in the degree in which culture shock affects
them. Although not common, there are individuals who cannot live in foreign
countries. Those who have seen people go through a serious case of culture shock
and on to a satisfactory adjustment can discern steps in the process. During the
first few weeks most individuals are fascinated by the new. They stay in hotels
and associate with nationals who speak their language and are polite and
gracious to foreigners. This honeymoon stage may last from a few days or weeks
to six months depending on circumstances. 50) If one is a very important person
he or she will be taken to the show places, will be pampered and petted, and in
a press interview will speak glowingly about progress, goodwill, and
international friendship. If he returns home may well write a book about his
pleasant if superficial experience abroad.
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 16:50:41 | 显示全部楼层

                        
      Section Ⅲ Writing
      Part A
      51. Directions:
      Your classmate, Bob, suffered a lot from the traffic accident one month
ago. Besides, he lost his left leg and felt very sad. Write a letter to
      1) send out your grief and sympathy,
      2) offer your assistance, and
      3) show your best wishes.
      You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own
name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead. Do not write the address.
(10 points)
      Part B
      52. Directions:
      Study the following drawing carefully and write an essay to
      1) describe the drawing,
      2) deduce the purpose of the painter of the drawing, and
      3) suggest counter-measures.
      You should write about 160—200 words neatly ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)
      
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 18:21:17 | 显示全部楼层

                        
      
   

d8188005813a49a6ad00a4397f2083cb33.jpg

d8188005813a49a6ad00a4397f2083cb33.jpg

   
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 19:58:44 | 显示全部楼层

                        
      答案详解:
      Section I答案及解析
      答案详解
      1.【解析】[B]逻辑衔接题。空格前后是两个并列的名词courts和a monarch,所在句子的含义为:“共同法”是由法庭 1
君主制定。根据常识可知,美国是民主制国家,法律不由君主制定。因此空格处填入的连接词应肯定前者而否定后者,正确项是[B]rather
than,即“法庭而不是君主”。other than通常用在否定句中,表示排除意义,即“除了”,相当于except。rather
than是连词,前后连接的成分应保持一致,可以是名词、动词、形容词、从句等,通常译为“而不是”,有时可用介词短语instead of替代。more
than连接名词时除了表示“多于,超过……以上”,也可以表示“不仅仅,不只是”,相当于not only。or
rather表示“更确切的说法是……”,相当于more exactly。
      2.【解析】[D]语义衔接题。空格处填入的名词和governmental搭配,表示“像立法机关这样的中央政府……”。[A]agency一般指“服务机构,尤其是代理或经销机构”;也可以指(提供特别服务)的政府专门机构,如the
Central Intelligence
Agency(美国中央情报局)。[B]organization泛指各种组织、团体和机构。[C]institution多指“大规模的用于特殊目的的组织”,如educational
institution(教育机构);或者指各种慈善机构和社会福利机构。[D]authority可表示“有权力做决定或在某个地区有特别责任范围的人们或组织”,即“当局,当权者”。文中legislature指“有权制定或修改法律的一群人”,即“立法机关”。因此[D]项为最佳答案。
      3.【解析】[A]语义衔接题。[A]项panel指“一组(给予意见和观点的人)”,如a panel of
experts专家组。crew指“(有专门技术的)一组工作人员,一起工作的一群人”;band指“(因为某种共同的目的而组成且有首领的)一帮人”;flock指a
crowd, large number of people。而空格所在部分指的是陪审团小组,就被告有罪无罪给出观点的一组人,因此[A]项正确。
      4.【解析】[C]语义衔接题。空格所在部分的含义是:陪审团是共同法系统……部分。innate意为“天生的,先天的(品质、情感等)”;intact意为“完整无缺的”;integral意为“必须的,不可或缺的”;integrated意为“各部分密切协调的,完整的,综合的”。根据文意,应选[C]项。
      5.【解析】[B]语义衔接题。空格部分填入的形容词作定语修饰feature,表示“使用陪审团来裁决案件是美国法律系统的一个……特征”。四个选项都是现在分词转换而成的形容词,[A]项discriminating意为“有识别力的;有辨别力的;有鉴赏力的”,如a
discriminating customer(有鉴赏力的顾客),它不和feature搭配。[B]项distinguishing意为“显著的,有区别的”,a
distinguishing feature意为“显著的特征”;[C]项determining意为“决定性的”,如determining
factors(决定因素),determining
feature(决定性的特征);[D]项diminishing意为“缩小的,减少的”。下文提到,很少有其他国家像美国一样使用陪审团制度,因此它是美国法律系统的一个较突出的特征,[B]项正确。
      6.【解析】[D]语义衔接题。[A]、[B]和[C]项都应与表示具体某个世纪的名词搭配,如in/by/after the twentieth
century(在20世纪/到20世纪/20世纪以后)。over接时间名词时相当于during,表示“在……期间”,over the
centuries表示“几个世纪以来”。
      7.【解析】[C]结构衔接题。空格前是一个结构完整的句子juries reach a fairer and more just
result,空格后是would be obtained using a judge
alone。显然这里包含了一个从句,由空格处的词来连接。前文已经出现了fairer和more
just,它们只能和than构成比较级。注意than在这里兼有连词和代词的性质,相当于than
what,整个主从句的含义为:在大多数情况下陪审团比单独一位法官达到的结果更公平、公正。
that可代替先行词result,which和as可代替前面整个句子,但代入后句子意为“陪审团可达到更公平、公正的结果,这个(结果)可单独使用一位法官而达到”,显然不符合逻辑。
      8.【解析】[B]语义衔接题。alone用在名词或代词之后可以表示“唯有、唯独”之意,文中a judge
alone表示“仅有一名法官”。alike意为“十分相似地;同样地”;altogether意为“完全,全部;总共,一共”;apart意为“分开,分离;除外”。
      9.【解析】[B]逻辑衔接题。逻辑连接词的选择需要分析前后两句话之间的语义关系。
      因果 9 a jury decides cases after “ 10 ”, or discussions among a group of
people,
      陪审团裁决案件是在一群人讨论后
      the jury’s decision is likely to have the 11 from many different people
from different backgrounds
      陪审团的决定可能有不同背景的不同人的……
      根据分析可知,这里应是因果关系,故选because。although“虽然”表让步,if“如果”表条件,while“当……的时候;虽然,尽管”表时间或让步。
      10.【解析】[A]语义衔接题。空格处的名词和discussions由连词or连接,两者形成了平行结构,语义相近,指“一群人的行为”。
      对比四个选项可知,deliberation和discussion同义,常用作复数,意为“商议,审议”,是正确答案。meditation作不可数名词时,意为“(尤指宗教的)沉思,冥想”;作可数名词时,意为“沉思录”。reflection作不可数名词时,意为“沉思,审慎的思考”;作可数名词时,意为“思考,回忆”。speculations指“推测,猜测”。因此[A]项正确。
      11.【解析】[C]语义衔接题。空格所在句子the jury’s decision is likely to have the from many
different people from different backgrounds, who must as a group decide what is
right的含义为:陪审团的决定可能有来自不同背景的不同人的……。要填入的单词受到from many different people from
different backgrounds, who must as a group decide what is right的限定,既然这些人who must
as a group decide what is right
(能够决定事情的对错),那么他们的决定一定是有影响力的,因此选项[C]input是正确答案,input可表示“影响”。outline意为“概述,略述,轮廓”;outcome一般指“(事件或行为的)结果,效果”;
intake意为“摄取量,接收人数”。
      12.【解析】[C]语义衔接题。空格处填入的名词是动词decide的宾语,表示“陪审团用来裁决公民之间发生的……”。argument指“辩论双方均以事实或理由来说服对方的辩论”。controversy多指“对引起广泛兴趣或非常重要的问题的公开的辩论”。dispute除了指“争论,辩论”,也可指“各方围绕某一问题产生的争端,纠纷”。代入文中指“公民之间的纠纷”,符合文意。hostility作不可数名词时意为“敌意,对抗”,作可数名词时常用复数形式,意为“敌对行为,战争行为”,由于它指具体行为,不与decide(解决,裁决)搭配。
      13.【解析】[D]语义衔接题。空格所在部分的含义是:民事案件裁决……公民之间的纷争。做形容词时,fellow意为“同类的,同事的,同伴的”,如fellow
citizens指“同胞”。individual意为“单独的,个别的”,后面只接单数可数名词或不可数名词,如each individual
member/freedom(每个成员/个人自由)。personal意为“个人的,私人的”,不与citizens搭配。private可意为“与工作或官职无关的,普通的,平民的”,private
citizens指“普通公民”,符合文意。
      14.【解析】[B]语义衔接题。空格处填入的现在分词做定语修饰名词cases,表示“由政府带来的刑事案件……个人犯罪”。因此关键是辨析几个核心动词。assert主观意味强,指“明确肯定,断言”,即自认为某事就是如此,而不管事实如何。allege多指“不提供证据的断言或宣称”。maintain指“坚决维护某种主张或观点”。testify多指“在法庭作证,庄严地宣称自己所说属实”。由于文中提到的案件是在陪审团作出裁决前由政府提出诉讼的案件,因此allege(指控)为正确答案。
      15.【解析】[A]语义衔接题。空格处填入的过去分词和上文的selected并列,表示“陪审团成员被选出并被……”。summon指“传唤,传讯(出庭)”,符合文意。assemble修饰人时表示“召集、集合”。evoke指“引起,唤起(感情、记忆)”。rally指“(为了帮助和支持某人或某事)召集、集合”。
      16.【解析】[A]语义衔接题。空格所在部分的含义是:陪审团由……人数组成。set意为“安排好的,确定的,固定的”,如follow a set
pattern(遵循一种固定的模式)。文中强调陪审团人数是固定的,因此应选set。exact意为“精确的,严密的”;given意为“(事先)已经安排好的,规定的”,如They
were to meet at a given time and place(他们要在规定的时间和地点会晤);placed意为“有名次的,已获胜的”。
      17.【解析】[D]语义衔接题。空格所在部分应填入过去分词作定语,修饰the judge,因此关键要辨析四个核心动词,其搭配为…the judge
to the case。assign表示“分配(某物),分派(工作、任务)等”时,其搭配是assign sth. to
sb.,表示“指定,指派;委任,派遣”时,其搭配是assign sb. to
sth.。放入文中表示“被指派负责案件的法官”。allocate意为“分配……(给),划……(归)”,其搭配是allocate sth. to
sb./sth.,一般接事物作直接宾语。allot意为“分配,配给(时间、钱财等);分配(任务)”,其搭配是allot sth. to
sb./sth.,一般也接事物作直接宾语。appoint意为“任命,委任”,其搭配是appoint sb. to/as
sth.,但其中sth。一般指的是职位。
      18.【解析】[C]语义衔接题。空格处填入的动词的主语是the judge,其宾语是the selection of
jurors,即表示“法官……陪审团成员的选举”。oversee意为“监督,监视(以确保某项工作或活动的恰当完成)”,oversee the
elections表示“监督选举”。由于法官并不直接参与陪审团的选举,因此oversee为正确答案。administer意为“管理(公司、组织、机构),治理(国家);施行,执行”,如administer
justice/the law(执行审判/执法)。manage表示“管理,负责(公司、球队、组织等)”,如manage a
factory(管理工厂),manage a
project(负责一个项目)。preside是不及物动词,和介词over或at搭配表示“主持(会议、仪式等);管理”。
      19.【解析】[D]语义衔接题。空格处填入的形容词,修饰jurors,根据上下文可知,这里表示的含义是“一些州(在选举陪审团成员时),……陪审团成员由法官询问”。四个备选单词的共同词根是spect表示“看”,四个前缀分别是:in表示“往里面”,ir表示“否定,与……相反”,per表示“每一”,pro表示“向前”。inspective意为“检查的,视察的;留神的”;irrespective意为“不考虑的,不顾的”;perspective意为“透视,远景,观点”;prospective意为“未来的,预期的”。显然[D]项符合文意。
      20.【解析】[B]语义衔接题。空格所在部分表达的含义是:在另一些州,陪审团成员遵照州法律规定的法规接受代表……的律师的询问。四个选项都可以指人的群体。body指“团体,社团,群体”;party指“(条约、会议、诉讼等)当事人,参与者,一方”,符合文意;side指“辩论或商务安排中的一方”;unit指“班组,小队”,如army/police
units(陆军/警察分队)。在此,party更加合适。
                        
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      参考译文
      美国的建国之父们作为大英帝国的前殖民者沿袭了其法律系统。我们有“共同法”,即由法庭而非君主或其他像立法机关这样的中央政府权力机关制定的法律。陪审团由一群选来裁决案件的普通公民组成,是我们共同法系统基本的组成部分。
      使用陪审团裁决案件是美国法律系统的一个显著特征。在世界上很少有其他国家和美国一样使用陪审团。几个世纪以来,许多人已经相信在大多数情况下陪审团比许多国家那样单独使用一位法官达成的结果更公平、公正。因为陪审团裁决案件是在一群人“审议”或讨论后,因此他们的决定可能受到不同背景的不同人的影响,这些人必须作为一个团体来决定什么是正确的。
      陪审团既被用在裁决普通公民之间纠纷的民事案件中,也用在裁决政府提出讼诉声称个人犯罪的刑事案件中。陪审团成员从美国公民中选出并被传唤。由固定人数组成的陪审团在每一个需要陪审团的案件中都会被召唤。
      被指派负责案件的法官监督陪审团成员的选举。在一些州,未来的陪审团成员由法官询问,而在另一些州,他们遵照州法律规定的法规接受代表各方当事人的律师的询问。
      SectionⅡ Reading Comprehension
      Part A 答案及解析
      Text One
      一、文章大意与结构
      此文主要讨论幸福感与不幸福感的关系。第一、二段指出,幸福感与不幸福感并不是同一情感的两个方面, 而是两种共存的不同感受,
两者之间没有多少关系。第三至五段提到,不幸福感的遗传禀性可能存在于某些家庭,而幸福感则主要靠后天培养。幸福感是一种主观感受,天生感到不幸福的人也可通过自己的努力增加幸福感。
      此文结构上的显著特点是各段中均使用转折词“but”或“however”,前半段的叙述作为铺垫,后半段以转折词引出作者的观点。
      二、试题解析
      21.
[A]判断题。此文第三段第三、四句说,研究表明,不幸福感的遗传禀性可能存在于某些家庭。幸福感似乎与遗传无关。由此可以断定,A“不幸福感是遗传的,而不是受环境影响的”正确。
      B“幸福与不幸福互为条件”,与第一段末句相悖;C“不幸受外部因素而不是内部因素影响”,与A项相反;D“幸福是一种不可控的主观感受”错误,幸福并非“uncontrollable”,它可以培养(三段末句)。
      22. [C]细节题。 题干中的关键词是“achieve happiness
by…”。文中有两处对此进行了回答:第三段末句“获得快乐的能力主要是自己培养的”,第五段末句“你可以通过自己的行动增加幸福”。因此C“不懈努力地追求它”符合文意。
      A“保持一般的幸福程度”,B“逃避生活中恼人的事情”,D“认识到它与不幸福共存”,均不正确。
      23.
[D]词义题。词语意义的判断必依据上下文:其前一句“他们也开始发现谁幸福谁不幸福及其原因”,其后一句“研究尚未找到幸福生活的简单定律,但业已发现某些行动和态度似乎会更使人们接近最渴望的那种感受”,
且句中谓语皆为现在完成时。故D“迄今为止”在意义和结构上皆恰当。
      A“结果”,B“此外”,C“目前”,均不可取。
      24. [B] 判断题。题干中的关键词是作者的believes(看法)。依据第一段末句“他们是两种不同的情感, 二者共存,各自增减”判断,
B“他们各自独立又同时存在”符合作者看法。
      A“人们因为出身贫寒而感到不幸福”,不合文意;C“人们参加更多的活动可感到幸福”是对actions的曲解;D“它们是人类采取的行动和态度”,
对第四段末句的曲解,行为和态度本身并非幸福或不幸福。
      25. [A] 句意题。“and that’s
that”是对前半句的进一步肯定,意为“就是这样;就是这么回事”。据此,只有A“情况无法改变”符合句意。
      B“幸福依然难以获得”,C“但他们对此考虑不多”,D“但他们对此未意识到”。
      Text Two
      文章大意与结构
      此文主要介绍中间人应具有的特质,如必须公正并拥有一定的社会、经济地位等;其余各段介绍中间人在一些国家的婚俗中所扮演的角色及有关情况。
      26.
细节题。研读第1段可知,[D]“对争议有非凡的洞察力”在文中并未提及,为所需答案。[A]“对争论公正的判断”,[C]“对争端公正的裁决”,都在第1段第2句中提到;[B]“决策过程中严格审慎”在第1段第5句中有所体现。
      27.
细节题。据第1段第5、6句可知,[B]“相当富有且考虑周全”为正确答案。[A]“有足够权威使任一方丢脸”,[D]“拥有高社会地位令争辩者惧怕”,均为偷天换日;[C]“证明其对争端的解决办法正确”,文中未提。
      28.
细节题。据第2段第2句的后半句可知,[C]“通常由中间人促成”为正确答案。[A]“不受父母意愿影响”,[B]“需事先详细斟酌”,[D]“要花家里一大笔钱”,分别是对第2段一些词语的曲解。
      29. 句义题。题干中的关键词是“may be turned
down”与“unless(如果不,除非)”。据第3段第1句内容判断,[A]“设法聘请一位有资格的中间人”恰是该句的反问表述。[B]“他们不顾一切赢得最佳选择”,[C]“女方父母想要丢面子”,[D]“女方父母敢于得罪中间人”,都不合句意。
      30. 细节题。题干中“the best way to resolve a
conflict”表示此题针对末段最后几句内容:解决问题的一个办法是女方家人证明女方有缺陷,不适合做新娘,这样各方都能保存面子。[D]“一个正当的借口使双方免于难看”恰与此意吻合,为正确答案。[A]“全社区提供支持”,[B]“双方都认可同一位中间人”,[C]“调解的结果是可接受的”,皆与文意不符。
      Text Three
      试题解析
      31. 本文主要是关于
      [A] 人际交往的主导地位。 [B] 网络上的牢固与不牢固人际关系。
      [C] 古老与现代关系的差异。 [D] 对网络及其影响的、依据经验的研究。【D】
      【解析】主旨题。文章前面的段落介绍了有关因特网的社交性使用可能产生的影响的研究,最后一段指出,网络产生的影响是有待解决的问题,依据经验得到的、有关因特网对关系与社会交往产生的影响的证据很少,有关这个问题的许多讨论都是猜测性的、轶事性的。这说明,本文主要是根据经验介绍有关网络产生的影响的研究。D与此意符合,可以表达本文的主题,为正确答案。A和C属于无中生有;B是在介绍网络产生的影响时涉及的内容,不能表达本文的主题。
      32. 文中暗示,
      [A] 因特网网络交往可以与传统交往相提并论。 [B] 在社会影响方面,电视不如电话。
      [C] 牢固的关系比不牢固的关系有效得多。 [D] 网络是每个家庭和社会的特色。【B】
      【解析】推论题。第一段提到,据证实,与电视相比,因特网的社会性强得多,因此,因特网的影响可能更像电话的影响,而不是电视的影响。由此可知,电视的社会影响没有电话大。B与此意符合,为正确答案。A是针对第一段最后一句话设置的干扰项,与文意不符合;C是针对第二段设置的干扰项,与文意不符合;D属于无中生有。
      33. 单词“buffer”(第二段)可能被替换。
      [A] 背离 [B] 缓解 [C] 保护 [D] 使分心【C】
      【解析】词义题。第二段首先解释了牢固的关系和不牢固的关系,随后提到了该词所在的句子——牢固的关系是那些通常使人们免受生活压力的关系,是那些产生更好的社会和心理效果的关系。根据“lead
to better social and psychological outcomes”以及该词的宾语“life’s
stresses”可知,该词可能的意思是“使……免于……”。C是对该词的同义替换,为正确答案。A和D是误解了该词的意思,B不准确,因为alleviate不与from搭配使用。
      34. 根据作者的观点,因特网可以
      [A] 消除距离障碍。 [B] 削弱人们的亲密感情。
      [C] 使人们有亲密的身体接触。 [D] 提高人们消除社会压力的能力。【A】
      【解析】细节题。第三段介绍了因特网在创建并维持牢固的社会关系网络方面产生的影响——可能降低了身体接触的重要性,提供社会交往的机会,这些交往不依赖于双方之间的距离。这说明,因特网不依赖于双方之间的距离。A与此意符合,为正确答案。C与此意相反;B是针对第三段第一、二句话设置的干扰项,与文意不符合;D是针对第二段最后一句话设置的干扰项,那是在介绍牢固的关系,与题目的要求不符。
      35. 根据本文,我们可以推知
      [A] 有关因特网影响的证据似乎很充分。 [B] 有关因特网的社会影响的研究不够。
      [C] 某些对因特网作用的讨论是决定性的。 [D] 随便的例子都可证明因特网的积极影响。【B】
      【解析】推论题。前面的段落介绍了有关因特网产生的影响的一些观点,最后一段指出,依据经验得到的、有关因特网对关系与社会交往产生的影响的证据很少,有关这个问题的许多讨论都是猜测性的、轶事性的,或者是基于有很少例子的有代表性数据。由此可知,有关因特网产生的社会影响的研究太少。B与此意符合,为正确答案。A与此意相反;C是针对最后一段最后一句话设置的干扰项,与文意不符合;D是针对最后一段第一句话设置的干扰项,与文意不符合。
      全文译文
      据证实,就像以前的网络一样,与电视相比,因特网的社会性强得多,因此,因特网的影响可能更像电话的影响,而不是电视的影响。我们的研究显示,人际交流是因特网在家庭的主要用途。不过,人们使用因特网主要是为了人际交流,这并不意味着他们在因特网上的社会交往和关系类似于他们的传统社会交往和关系,或者他们在社交中使用因特网会产生类似于传统社会活动的影响。
      因特网的社交性使用会产生积极影响还是消极影响,可能依赖于因特网如何保持人们维持的稳固和不牢固网络关系的平衡。牢固的关系是与频繁的接触、深厚的友爱感以及坚定的责任感有关的关系,而不牢固的关系是与表面上的、容易破裂的联系、不经常的接触以及有限的共同点有关的关系。稳固和不牢固的关系以同样的方式为人们提供社会支持。对于让人们接触其最接近的地方群体难以获得的信息和社会资源,不牢固的关系,包括不牢固的网络关系,尤其有用。但是,牢固的关系是那些通常使人们免受生活压力的关系,是那些产生更好的社会和心理效果的关系,人们从他们接触最频繁的那些人那里得到大多数社会支持,更大的支持来自于那些有更牢固关系的人们。
      通常情况下,牢固的个人关系受到身体接触的维持。在创建并维持牢固的社会关系网络时,因特网可能降低了身体接触的重要性。不像面对面的交往,或者电话交流,因特网提供社会交往的机会,这些交往不依赖于双方之间的距离。人们通常利用因特网与那些以前就有关系的人保持联系。但是,他们也在网上发展新关系。大多数这样的新关系都不牢固。多用户网络游戏、网络新闻组以及聊天室使得人们接触大量的新群体,但是,这些网络“混合群体”通常是因为特别话题或活动组织起来的,很少在地方群体和亲属、朋友中循环出现。
      在网上发展的典型关系是否会像典型的传统关系一样牢固,发展网络关系是否改变了个人总体社会交往的数量与质量,这些是有待讨论的问题。依据经验得到的、有关因特网对关系与社会交往产生的影响的证据很少。许多作者对于因特网是会促进社会发展还是会破坏社会发展有争议。有关这个问题的许多讨论都是猜测性的、轶事性的,或者是基于有很少例子的有代表性数据。
      Text Four
      文章大意与结构
      此文主要介绍一些学者对领导才能构成要素的研究。第一段指出,研究人员对于什么样的人能够成为领导者这一问题并无定论;第二段说明,某些学者的研究成果显示,经受住研究考验是众多领导者的共同特征;第三段介绍了成为领导的四大关键因素,并在第四段中举出具体事例来说明这些素质的重要性;最后一段举出了众多领导者共有的另一关键特征:对于未来的可能性充满期待、追求和渴望。
      36. 推论题。
第一段第二句表明,多年来,研究者们一直就构成和领导者成败的种种因素争论不休。由此推断,【D】“探究领导才能的奥秘”正确;【B】“预测领导者是如何形成的”,【C】“描述成为领导的可能性”,均不符合第一段文意。
      37. 判断题 Bennis
的观点体现在第二段:所有领导者不分老少,都经历过至少一次激烈的变革,即“crucial”(严峻的考验)。由此可以判断,【C】“能够经受严峻考验和磨难的突出品质”为正确答案。
      38. 判断题
题干的关键词“crucial”表明此题针对第二段,由该段末句可知:严峻的考验不会使新兴领导者崩溃,而会造就他们,使他们从中获得至关重要的经验,从而满怀信心的前进。据此判断,[B]“把它看做是有益于进步的经历”与句意相符。
      39. 细节题 题干中的“maintain his/her position”相当于第三段第一句中的“remain one(a leader)”。
该句表明,有四个重要素质是领导者能否保住领导地位的关键。由此可知,【A】“满足所有必需的品质条件”为正确答案。
      40. 例证题。
题干中的关键词“dictum”出现在第四段,该段末句表明,保洁公司的前首席执行官因未能有效地沟通他所进行的全面改革的紧迫性而丢掉了工作。因此【B】“Durk
Jager因其沟通能力不佳而被解职”符合文意。
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
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      Part B答案及解析
      答案 41.B 42.A 43.D 44.F 45.C
      总体分析
      本文是介绍青春期变化的说明文,共七个段落,可以分成三个部分。
      第一段:指出青春期的变化带来的苦恼和恐惧可以通过交流和提前准备得以消除。
      第二段至第六段:分别论述青春期出现的问题。
      第七段:再次重申第一段的观点,即了解问题和交流能有助于这个时期的平稳过渡。
      
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
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发表于 2018-12-8 21:27:56 | 显示全部楼层

                        
      试题精解
      (一)审题,读主题词。
      虽然几乎每个标题配对题的题目表述几乎一致,但题目中唯一不同之处就是主题词的所在。比如,本题中的主题词是preparing for
change(为变化做好准备),由此考生可以预测文章的内容应包括变化是什么、如何做准备等。
      (二)查找选项中的关键词或段落主题句中的关键词,并匹配选项与段落
      实现这个步骤有两种方法:一是先将所有选项都审完,标记出选项中的关键词,再回到原文中去寻找相对应的段落。二是先通过浏览段落主题句,标记出每段的关键词,再到所提供的备选项中寻找对应项。首先推荐第一种方法,因为题目给出的选项中有较大的逻辑联系,可以通过阅读它们将文章大概思路和内容整理出来。
      在做这一步时,要小心陷阱。备选项中总会有几个选项的内容能够在段落找到文字上完全相同的对应。这些能够与原文对应的选项有时只是某个段落中提到的一个细节内容,而我们需要做的是找到段落的主旨。记住:光提到是不够的,关键要与主题对应。
      本文中选项及其翻译如下,其中关键词用黑体显示:
      [A] Physical Changes 身体变化
      [B] Low Self-Esteem自卑
      [C] Emerging Independence and Search for Identity开始出现的独立和寻求认同的倾向
      [D] Emotional Turbulence情感波动
      [E] Interest in the Opposite Sex对异性的兴趣
      [F] Peer Pressure and Conformity同辈人的压力和从众心理
      概括这些选项的内容可以推测出文章的主要话题是青春期的变化及如何为这些变化做准备。
      接下来主要是概括各段落的主旨,特别注意各段的主题句。
      第一段先论述过渡到成年期是很艰难的,倒数第二句(该段的主题句)指出通过开放性交流和在变化来临前作好准备就能消除(青春期的)恐惧和焦虑情绪。末句是过渡句,主要作用是引出下面的内容。
      41.第41题所在段落即第二段的主题句是第一句,即青春期孩子的自我价值感特别脆弱。后面的内容具体论述其表现。主题句中的关键词是self-worth,它与[B]项中的self-esteem是同义词。该段中的其他关键词或表达,如nobody
likes them,not as good,failures, losers, ugly or unintelligent正好可以用[B]项low
self-esteem一并概括。
      42.
第三段第一句(主题句)提到,学龄儿童中普遍存在着某种形式的对自己身体的不满。接着,该段论述了这种不满的两种极端表现:过分羞涩和异常愤怒。最后两句话补充到,晚熟(即不和同龄人同时经历身体变化)会造成自卑感和呆板。因此该段的关键词是bodily
dissatisfaction和bodily changes。对应的选项是[A]项physical
changes。这一题的干扰在于段落中出现了self-consciousness,inferiority,而                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业
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