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2011年考研英语全真冲刺模拟试题(1)_跨考网

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发表于 2018-12-8 12:34:33 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(一)全真冲刺试卷Ⅰ
Simulated National Entrance Test of English for MA/MS Candidates
  (2011)
  考生注意事项
  1. 考生必须严格遵守各项考场规则。
  2. 答题前,考生应按准考证上的有关内容填写答题卡上的“考生姓名”、“报考单位”、“考生编号”等信息。
  3. 答案必须按要求填涂或写在指定的答题卡上。
  (1) 英语知识运用、阅读理解A节、B节的答案填涂在答题卡1上。填涂部分应该按照答题卡上的要求用2B铅笔完成。如要改动,必须用橡皮擦干净。
  (2) 阅读理解部分C节的答案和作文必须用(蓝)黑色字迹钢笔、圆珠笔或签字笔在答题卡2上作答。字迹要清楚。
  4. 考试结束,将答题卡1、答题卡2及试题一并装入试题袋中交回。
  考试时间
  满分180分钟100分得分
  Section ⅠUse of English
  Directions:
  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
  Many foreigners who have not visited Britain call all the inhabitants English, for they are used to thinking of the British Isles as England. 1, the British Isles contain a variety of peoples, and only the people of England call themselves English. The others 2 to themselves as Welsh, Scottish, or Irish, 3 the case may be; they are often slightly annoyed 4 being classified as “English”.
  Even in England there are many 5 in regional character and speech. The chief 6 is between southern England and northern England. South of a 7 going from Bristol to London, people speak the type of English usually learnt by foreign students, 8 there are local variations.
  Further north regional speech is usually “9”than that of southern Britain. Northerners are 10 to claim that they work harder than Southerners, and are more 11. They are open-hearted and hospitable; foreigners often find that they make friends with them 12. Northerners generally have hearty 13: the visitor to Lancashire or Yorkshire, for instance, may look forward to receiving generous 14 at meal times.
  In accent and character the people of the Midlands 15 a gradual change from the southern to the northern type of Englishman.
  In Scotland the sound 16 by the letter “R” is generally a strong sound, and “R” is often pronounced in words in which it would be 17 in southern English. The Scots are said to be a serious, cautious, thrifty people, 18 inventive and somewhat mystical. All the Celtic peoples of Britain (the Welsh, the Irish, the Scots) are frequently 19 as being more “fiery” than the English. They are 20 a race that is quite distinct from the English. (289 words)
  Notes: fiery暴躁的,易怒的。
  1. [A]In consequence[B]In brief[C]In general[D]In fact
  2. [A]confine[B]attach[C]refer[D]add
  3. [A]as[B]which[C]for[D]so
  4. [A]with[B]by[C]at[D]for
  5. [A]similarities[B]differences[C]certainties[D]features
  6. [A]factor[B]virtue[C]privilege[D]division
  7. [A]line[B]row[C]border[D]scale
  8. [A]who[B]when[C]though[D]for
  9. [A]wider[B]broader[C]rarer[D]scarcer
  10. [A]used[B]apt[C]possible[D]probable
  11. [A]perfect[B]notorious[C]superior[D]thorough
  12. [A]swiftly[B]promptly[C]immediately[D]quickly
  13. [A]appetites[B]tastes[C]interests[D]senses
  14. [A]helpings[B]offerings[C]fillings[D]findings
  15. [A]designate[B]demonstrate[C]represent[D]reckon
  16. [A]delivered[B]denoted[C]depicted[D]defined
  17. [A]quiet[B]obscure[C]faint[D]silent
  18. [A]rather[B]still[C]somehow[D]even
  19. [A]rendered[B]thought[C]impressed[D]described
  20. [A]with[B]of[C]among[D]against
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 14:07:50 | 显示全部楼层

                        
Section ⅡReading Comprehension
  Part A
  Directions:
  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
  Text1
  We have known for a long time that the organization of any particular society is influenced by the definition of the sexes and the distinction drawn between them. But we have realized only recently that the identity of each sex is not so easy to pin down, and that definitions evolve in accordance with different types of culture known to us, that is, scientific discoveries and ideological revolutions. Our nature is not considered as immutable, either socially or biologically. As we approach the beginning of the 21st century, the substantial progress made in biology and genetics is radically challenging the roles, responsibilities and specific characteristics attributed to each sex, and yet, scarcely twenty years ago, these were thought to be “beyond dispute”.
  We can safely say, with a few minor exceptions, that the definition of the sexes and their respective functions remained unchanged in the West from the beginning of the 19th century to the 1960s. The role distinction, raised in some cases to the status of uncompromising dualism on a strongly hierarchical model, lasted throughout this period, appealing for its justification to nature, religion and customs alleged to have existed since the dawn of time. The woman bore children and took care of the home. The man set out to conquer the world and was responsible for the survival of his family, by satisfying their needs in peacetime and going to war when necessary.
  The entire world order rested on the divergence of the sexes. Any overlapping or confusion between the roles was seen as a threat to the time-honored order of things. It was felt to be against nature, a deviation from the norm.
  Sex roles were determined according to the “place”appropriate to each. Women's place was, first and foremost, in the home. The outside world, i.e. workshops, factories and business firms, belonged to men. This sex-based division of the world (private and public) gave rise to a strict dichotomy between the attitudes, which conferred on each its special identity. The woman, sequestered at home, “cared, nurtured and conserved”. To do this, she had no need to be daring, ambitious, tough or competitive. The man, on the other hand, competing with his fellow men, was caught up every day in the struggle for survival, and hence developed those characteristics which were thought natural in a man.
  Today, many women go out to work, and their reasons for doing so have changed considerably. Besides the traditional financial incentives, we find ambition and personal fulfillment motivating those in the most favorable circumstances, and the wish to have a social life and to get out of their domestic isolation influencing others. Above all, for all women, work is invariably connected with the desire for independence. (454 words)
  Notes: pin down 把…讲明确;确定。immutable不可改变的。dualism双重论。divergence分歧,偏离。overlapping部分巧合、一致。time-honored 由来已久的。dichotomy 一分为二,对立。sequester使隔离。be caught up in 被缠住于,如:He is caught up in the trivia (琐事) of everyday things. unduly过度地,不恰当地。
  21. It is only in recent years that we have recognized that
  [A]there is almost no clue to the identity of both sexes.
  [B]the role distinction between different sexes is conspicuous.
  [C]the different definitions of sexes bears on the development of culture.
  [D]the progress of civilization greatly influences the role definitions of sexes.
  22. From paragraph 1 we can infer that it is now possible for women to embark on a career because
  [A]the change in sex roles is out of the question.
  [B]women's lib has been going on for many years.
  [C]ideas about the roles of women have been changing.
  [D]the expansion of sciences scarcely remolds the women's roles.
  23. The author believes that sex discrimination in the West before the 1960s was
  [A]preferable.
  [B]prevalent.
  [C]presumable.
  [D]precedent.
  24. According to the fourth paragraph, the author seems to think that
  [A]female passivity is natural.
  [B]men and women are physically identical.
  [C]men are born competitive and aggressive.
  [D]some different sex identity is acquired.
  25. According to the author, which of the following is the most important reason for women to go to work?
  [A]Wish to claim their rights and freedom.
  [B]Ambition and self-fulfillment.
  [C]Financial incentives.
  [D]Desire for a social life.
  Text2
  The domestic economy in the United States expanded in a remarkably vigorous and steady fashion. The revival in consumer confidence was reflected in the higher proportion of incomes spent for goods and services and the marked increase in consumer willingness to take on installment debt. A parallel strengthening in business psychology was manifested in a stepped-up rate of plant and equipment spending and a gradual pickup in expenses for inventory. Confidence in the economy was also reflected in the strength of the stock market and in the stability of the bond market. For the year as a whole, consumer and business sentiment benefited from the ease in East-West tensions.
  The bases of the business expansion were to be found mainly in the stimulative monetary and fiscal policies that had been pursued. Moreover, the restoration of sounder liquidity positions and tighter management control of production efficiency had also helped lay the groundwork for a strong expansion. In addition, the economic policy moves made by the President had served to renew optimism on the business outlook while boosting hopes that inflation would be brought under more effective control. Finally, of course, the economy was able to grow as vigorously as it did because sufficient leeway existed in terms of idle men and machines.
  The United States balance of payments deficit declined sharply. Nevertheless, by any other test, the deficit remained very large, and there was actually a substantial deterioration in our trade account to a sizable deficit, almost two-thirds of which was with Japan. While the overall trade performance proved disappointing, there are still good reasons for expecting the delayed impact of devaluation to produce in time a significant strengthening in our trade picture. Given the size of the Japanese component of our trade deficit, however, the outcome will depend importantly on the extent of the corrective measures undertaken by Japan. Also important will be our own efforts in the United States to fashion internal policies consistent with an improvement in our external balance.
  The underlying task of public policy for the year ahead—and indeed for the longer run—remained a familiar one: to strike the right balance between encouraging healthy economic growth and avoiding inflationary pressures. With the economy showing sustained and vigorous growth, and with the currency crisis highlighting the need to improve our competitive posture internationally, the emphasis seemed to be shifting to the problem of inflation. The Phase Three program of wage and price restraint can contribute to reducing inflation. Unless productivity growth is unexpectedly large, however, the expansion of real output must eventually begin to slow down to the economy's larger run growth potential if generalized demand pressures on prices are to be avoided. (449 words)
  Notes: inventory 存货。East-West tensions 东西方紧张局势。fiscal (与国库的钱有关的)财务的(常指税收)。liquidity 周转率,清偿力。leeway 余地。given 鉴于,由于。the Phase Three program 第三阶段计划。
  26. The author mentions increased installment debt in the first paragraph in order to show
  [A]the continuing expansion of the economy.
  [B]the growth of consumer purchasing power.
  [C]the consumers'confidence in the economy.
  [D]the soaring consumer incomes for spending.
  27. Paragraph 2 mainly deals with
  [A]the revival of stronger liquidity positions.
  [B]the stimulative monetary and fiscal policies.
  [C]the causes of business development for the period.
  [D]economic policy measures suggested by the President.
  28. It can be inferred from the third paragraph that the author's attitude toward the reduction of the international payments deficit seems
  [A]bitter-sweet.
  [B]optimistic.
  [C]sympathetic
  [D]depressing.
  29. Part of the public policy task, as outlined in the text, is to
  [A]prevent payments deficit.
  [B]avoid inflationary pressures.
  [C]devalue the dollar.
  [D]increase the balance of trade.
  30. It can be learned from the last paragraph that the Phase Three program contained
  [A]reduced government spending.
  [B]devaluation of the dollar.
  [C]productivity measures.
  [D]wage and price controls.
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 14:16:07 | 显示全部楼层

                        
  Part B
  Directions:
  In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41—45, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
  The first two stages in the development of civilized man were probably the invention of primitive weapons and the discovery of fire, although nobody knows exactly when he acquired the use of the latter.
  41)______________________ Animals have a few cries that serve as signals, but even the highest apes have not been found able to pronounce words, even with the most intensive professional instruction. The superior brain of man is apparently a necessity for the mastering of speech. When man became sufficiently intelligent, we must suppose that he gradually increased the number of cries for different purposes. It was a great day when he discovered that speech could be used for narrative. There are those who think that in this respect picture language preceded oral language. A man could draw a picture on the wall of his cave to show in which direction he had gone, or what prey he hoped to catch. 42)_________________________
  Two important stages came not so long before the dawn of written history. The first was the domestication of animals; the second was agriculture. Agriculture made possible an immense increase in the number of the human species in the regions where it could be successfully practiced. 43)___________________________
  44)______________________________
  These inventions and discoveries—fire, speech, weapons domestic animals, agriculture, and writing—made the existence of civilized communities possible. From about 3000 B.C. until the beginning of the Industrial Revolution less than two hundred years ago there was no technical advance comparable to these. During this long period man had time to become accustomed to his technique, and to develop the beliefs and political organizations appropriate to it. There was, of course, an immense extension in the area of civilized life. At first it had been confined to the Nile, the Euphrates, the Tigris, and the Indus, but at the end of the period in question it covered much the greatest part of the inhabitable globe. I do not mean to suggest that there was no technical progress during the time. 45)______________________ (512 words)
  Notes: ape 猿。pastoral nomad 田园式的游牧部落的人。the Euphrates 幼发拉底河。the Tigris 底格里斯河。the Indus 印度河。in question所谈的(在名词后作后置定语)。
  [A] Probably picture language and oral language developed side by side. I am inclined to think that language has been the most important single factor in the development of man.
  [B] Another fundamental technical advance was writing, which, like spoken language, developed out of pictures, but as soon as it had reached a certain stage, it was possible to keep records and transmit information to people who were not present when the information was given.
  [C] With the development of civilization, primitive people who lived in caves at that time badly needed a language, which would help them to communicate with one another.
  [D] The origin of language is also obscure. No doubt it began very gradually.
  [E] In fact, there was progress—there were even two inventions of very great importance, namely, gunpowder and the mariner's compass—but neither of these can be compared in their revolutionary power to such things as speech and writing and agriculture.
  [F] These were, at first, only those in which nature fertilized the soil after each harvest. Agriculture met with violent resistance from the pastoral nomads, but the agricultural way of life prevailed in the end because of the physical comforts it provided.
  [G] But industry was a step in human progress to which subsequently there was nothing comparable until our own machine age.
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 15:45:19 | 显示全部楼层

                        
Part C
  Directions:
  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)
  Our daily existence is divided into two phases, as distinct as day and night. We call them work and play. We work many hours a day and we allow the necessary minimum for such activities as eating and shopping. 46) The rest we spend in various activities which are known as recreations, an elegant word which disguises the fact that we usually do not even play in our hours of leisure, but spend them in various forms of passive enjoyment or entertainment.
  We need to make, therefore, a hard-and-fast distinction not only between work and play but, equally, between active play and passive entertainment. 47) It is, I suppose, the decline of active play — of amateur sport — and the enormous growth of purely receptive entertainment which have given rise to a sociological interest in the problem. If the greater part of the population, instead of indulging in sport, spend their hours of leisure “viewing” television programs, there will inevitably be a decline in health and physique. In addition, we have yet to trace the mental and moral consequences of prolonged diet of sentimental or sensational spectacles on the screen. 48) There is, if we are optimistic, the possibility that the diet is too thin and unnourishing to have much permanent effect on anybody. Nine films out of ten seem to leave absolutely no impression on the mind or imagination of those who have seen them.
  49) It is only when entertainment is active, participated in, practiced, that it can properly be called play, and as such it is a natural use of leisure. In that sense play stands in contrast to work, and is usually regarded as an activity that alternates with work.
  Work itself is not a single concept. We say quite generally that we work in order to make a living. Some of us work physically, tilling the land, minding the machines, digging the coal; others work mentally, keeping accounts, inventing machines, teaching and preaching, managing and governing. 50) There does not seem to be any factor common to all these diverse occupations, except that they consume our time, and leave us little leisure.(356 words)
  Section ⅢWriting
  Part A
  51. Directions:
  Read the following Chinese text and write an abstract of it in 80—100 English words on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)
  帮助孩子重新振作
  孩子得不到帮助,后果可能很严重。根据一次全国性调查,父母离婚或分居的小孩在接下来的3年内比别的小孩更有可能出现健康问题。父母离婚的小孩留级率或停学率可能是别的小孩的两倍, 需要咨询的概率很可能比别的小孩多3倍。
  仅仅靠时间无法愈合这类精神创伤,这些孩子需要成年人的帮助。下面提供3项策略,是我在为这类有问题的家庭提供咨询时总结出来的:
  一、 尽早将真相告诉小孩。我们提出了以下几个办法:
  亲自向孩子透露令人沮丧的消息。当孩子意识到自己和他所熟悉并信任的某个人共同分享真相时,他能正确面对几乎任何事。如果有可能,离婚的父母双方在孩子听到他们离婚的消息时都应在场。
  如果家庭压力与一个意外事故有关,要说清楚事故的原委。否则,有些孩子会产生无端的负罪感。
  如果有较大的突发事件,要小心地解释家庭生活可能会发生的变化。对孩子来说,了解任何事实比不明就里强。
  二、 鼓励孩子将自己的情绪讲出来,但如果孩子还没准备好,也别强迫他们。小孩子和成年人一样,也需要谈谈自己的缺憾。你可以用下面几个方法帮他们敞开心扉:
  发生悲剧时,首先跟孩子聊聊你自己的感受和烦恼,以便使孩子更容易表达出他们的感受。然后问些能引导进一步讨论的问题。
  跟孩子谈话要挑选适当的时机和场合。
  如果你无法用言语表达痛苦或担忧,可以考虑给你的孩子写一封信。让孩子理解你的内心感受很重要,这样他们才能更好地理解他们自己的感受。
  三、 着眼于未来。我在伊利诺伊州的几个朋友改建了住房。改建工程完成一个星期后,一场大火毁灭了房子,全家人差点儿葬身火海。
  过后,父母和孩子们坐下来谈话。“一切都过去了,”母亲说,“以后的生活绝不会跟以前一样,一定会再好起来的。”经过一年的努力,全家人搬进了新居,新房子就建在原先房子的所在地。他们的财产比以前少多了,但是他们感情上变坚强了,决心在生活上翻开新的一页。
  当危机袭来时,不健康的家庭会分崩离析,健康的家庭会向前看,重新构建,他们通常会遵照下面的3条基本原则:
  做父母的得先治愈自己的创伤。如果父母中的一方或父母双方带头的话,孩子就比较容易从一次较大的家庭挫折中重新振作起来。衣阿华州立大学的一些研究人员在研究中西部450个家庭的青少年受家庭经济困难的影响时发现,家庭经
  济问题对十几岁少年的影响比其父母对家庭经济问题的反应要小。
  把注意力重新放到家庭的价值上。不要哀叹因为你的配偶丢掉了他或她的工作你就再也不能享受某些活动了,不要喋喋不休地谈论毁于一场洪水或火灾的家庭录影集。
  让小孩子参与对某些事情的决策,让他们感到自己在做贡献。一年春天,一个有几个小孩的朋友意识到,她那有病的、上了年纪的祖母再也无法自理,将不得不搬到他们那栋3个卧室的简陋房子里。父母立即和7岁的儿子、两岁的女儿讨论这个问题。“我们都必须尽力帮助她。” 母亲说,“曾祖母需要一个自己的房间。”她对7岁的儿子说:“你妹妹还在睡婴儿床,所以曾祖母只有睡你的床了。”
  这男孩将不得不睡在客厅的沙发床上。“太好了!”男孩说,他为能参与这一重要的家庭决定而感到高兴,“我要让她住我的房间。”老太太搬进来后,孩子们似乎能感受到她的需求,无论什么时候,只要她在场,他们甚至会停止惯常的争吵。
  2007年,在做了14年的单身母亲后,我再婚了。这件事并没有给我那3个已成年的儿子带来很大的压力,但这毕竟是一个很大的调整。我耐心地等待着他们对这一重大变化完全适应的迹象。
  一天晚上,儿子们晚饭后要一起出去,他们一一跟我吻别道晚安。当他们走近我的丈夫马蒂时,我料想他们要和平时一样依次跟他握手。然而,先是迈克尔,然后是汤姆和蒂姆,走到马蒂跟前,第一次和他拥抱。那个简单动作表明他们完全接受了这个继父和我们新的家庭组合。我自豪地笑了,他们做得很好。他们能处理好他们未来人生道路上的任何问题。为人父母,最感到知足的莫过于此。(1552字)
  注:重新振作bounce back。
  Part B
  52. Directions:
  Write an essay of 160—200 words based on the following picture. In your essay, you should
  1) describe the cartoon briefly,
  2) interpret the social phenomenon reflected by the cartoon, and
  3) give your point of view.
  You should write it neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)

  礼貌与公德何在?
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
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发表于 2018-12-8 16:41:52 | 显示全部楼层

                        
2011年考研英语全真冲刺模拟试题答案
  Section ⅠUse of English
  参考译文
  许多没有到过大不列颠的外国人把这里的所有居民都叫做英格兰人,因为他们习惯于把大不列颠群岛认为是英格兰。实际上,大不列颠群岛上有许多民族,只有英格兰的人才把自己称为英格兰人。而其他人称自己为威尔士人、苏格兰人和爱尔兰人,事情可能就是这样。把他们一概统称为“英国人”,常会使他们感到有点生气。
  即使在英格兰也有许多地区性特点和言语方面的差别。主要区别存在于南英格兰与北英格兰之间。从布里斯托到伦敦的连线以南,人们说的英语就是外国学生通常所学的那种英语,尽管有些地方性差异。
  再往北的方言通常比英国南部方言的差异“更大”。 北部人往往声称他们比南部人更勤奋,因而更纯正。他们真诚和殷勤。外国人常常发现,他们很快就与北部人交上朋友。北部人一般心宽体胖胃口好,例如,到兰开郡或约克郡的参观者在吃饭时可以有望得到丰盛的饭菜。
  在口音和特征方面,米德兰(英格兰中部地区)的人代表了从南部型英格兰人到北部型英格兰人的逐渐变化。
  在苏格兰,字母“r”所表示的音是强音,并且“r”常常在有些词中读出声来,在南部英语中这些词中的“r”是不发音的。据说,苏格兰是一个严肃、谨慎、节俭的民族,更有创造力并且有点神秘感。英伦三岛的所有凯尔特人种(威尔士、爱尔兰人、苏格兰人)常被描述成比英格兰人更加“脾气暴躁”。 他们具有与英格兰人完全不同的血统。
  1. [答案] [D]In fact
  [注释] 逻辑搭配。in fact 实际上;常表示语气的转折。in consequence因此; in brief简短地;总而言之; in general 一般来说。从上下文的逻辑意思看,in fact最为贴切。
  2. [答案] [C]refer
  [注释] 词义型结构搭配。refer to...as 把…称做…; confine...to 把…局限于;管制;attach...to 缚上,系上,贴上,使…依附于,使…依恋; add to (= increase) 增加。
  注意:1) attach importance/significance to重视,例如:They attached great importance to his speech.
  2) 信件用语,例如:Attached to this letter, you will find... 随信附上…。
  3. [答案] [A]as
  [注释] 逻辑搭配。as 作关系代词,引导非限制性定语从句,在从句中作表语,代表整个主句的意思。as the case may be 可译为“事情可能就是这样”。which 虽然也可以引导非限制性定语从句,但在此类带有插入句性质的定语从句中均用as,例如:As is known to all, water consists of oxygen and hydrogen.
  4. [答案] [C]at
  [注释] 结构搭配。be annoyed at对…感到烦恼、不痛快。
  5. [答案] [B]differences
  [注释] 逻辑型词义搭配。解这类题的技巧是瞻前顾后,注意上下文的逻辑联系,然后区别词义,选择恰当的词填入短文中,使句子前后贯通,与全文融为一体。
  6. [答案] [D]division
  [注释] 逻辑型词义搭配。前一句中的differences暗示此处应选division。
  7. [答案] [A]line
  [注释] 词义搭配。row (横)排; border 边界; scale 尺度,规模。
  8. [答案] [C]though
  [注释] 逻辑搭配。此处表示让步关系,故应选[C]。
  9. [答案] [B]broader
  [注释] 词义搭配。wide广大的,广泛的。它侧重指两边的距离(distance)。broad广阔的。它侧重指本身的广度(amplitude)。如:a wide use of a word。This is a broad question.此外,形容眼、口的大,应当用wide;形容肩、胸的大,应当用broad。本句中指方言本身的范围,故用broader更妥。
  10. [答案] [B]apt
  [注释] 结构型词义搭配。be apt to do sth. 倾向于,习惯于:A careless person is apt to make mistakes. be used to doing sth. 习惯于(后接名词或动名词)。sb. is possible to do sth. 是错误的,应改为It is possible for sb. to do sth.。probable (很可能成为现实的)经常用于“It is probable that...”句型中或sth. is probable句型中,例如:1)It is probable that it will rain today. 2)Colder weather is probable. 此外, probable 也可以作定语形容词,修饰名词,如:He is a probable candidate.
  11. [答案] [D]thorough
  [注释] 结构型词义搭配。thorough 纯正,完美。perfect没有比较级和最高级形式,因而句中既然有more,就不能再接perfect了。superior是从拉丁语接纳到英语中来的形容词比较级,故不能与more 连用。notorious (臭名昭著的)与上下文内容相悖,故不能入选。
  12. [答案] [D]quickly
  [注释] 本题测试词义搭配。swiftly 快速地,敏捷地; promptly 敏捷地,迅速地,即刻地;以上两词均强调行为发生的敏捷性,而本句中只强调交朋友的“快”,故应选quickly。immediately 意为“立刻,马上”,也不合题意,故不能入选。
  13. [答案] [A]appetites
  [注释] 词义搭配。hearty appetites心宽体胖胃口好。taste滋味;趣味,鉴赏力; interest兴趣; sense感觉;见识;意思;以上三词均不符合句意,故不能入选。
  14. [答案] [A]helpings
  [注释] 词义搭配。helping (饭菜的)分量,正合句意。offering 提供,奉献,献礼;filling 填料,填充物; finding发现,发现物,发现结果;均不符合句意。
  15. [答案] [C]represent
  [注释] 词义搭配。represent vt. 描述,表示; designate vt. 标明,指明: designate the city on the map (在地图上标明这个城市);demonstrate vt. 论证,演示; reckon vt.认为;指望;处理;测算。根据词义和句意,只有represent合适。
  16. [答案] [B]denoted
  [注释] 词义辨析。denote vt. 表示; deliver vt. 交付,投递,发表;depict vt. 描绘; define vt. 给…下定义。
  17. [答案] [D]silent
  [注释] 词义惯用搭配。silent在此处指语音学中“默音的”,例如:doubt 中b不发音,被称为“默音字母”。
  18. [答案] [A]rather
  [注释] 词义搭配。rather (= to a moderate extent, quite) 有点,相当。
  19. [答案] [D]described
  [注释] 惯用结构搭配。be described as被描述为。“render+名词+形容词”意为“致使…”; be thought of as 被认为;impress vt. 使…留下印象。
  20. [答案] [B]of
  [注释] 结构搭配。“be of + 名词”意为“是具有…的”。例如:1) His speech is of great importance to us.2) The computer is of high quality.
  小结
  按大纲规定“英语知识应用”,即完形填空,题材应为一篇240~280字的短文。本文是289字,符合大纲要求。试题类型有逻辑搭配、词义搭配、结构搭配和惯用搭配,与2010年试题相一致。完形填空解题技巧是:把握主题、抓住上下文的逻辑主线、瞻前顾后、各个击破,最后统观全文、查错补漏。完形填空解题时间通常为15分钟左右。千万不要超时,以免挤占后面各项的解题时间。
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 17:00:12 | 显示全部楼层

                        
Section ⅡReading Comprehension
  Part A
  21. [答案] [D]the progress of civilization greatly influences the role definitions of sexes.
  [注释] 细节理解题。本题问:直到最近我们才意识到什么?第1段第2句写道:“但是直到最近我们才意识到,每一种性别的本性是很难说清楚的,并且定义是按照我们所知道的不同文化,即科学发现和思想革命,在发展的。”由此可见,[D]“文明的进步对男女性别作用的定义有很大影响”符合上述句意。[A]there is almost no clue to the identity of both sexes(几乎没有线索来确定两种性别的本性)属概念偷换,故应排除。[B]the role distinction between different sexes is conspicuous(不同性别所承担的工作差别是显而易见的)属正反颠倒,故不能入选。[C]the different definitions of sexes bears on the development of culture(性别的不同定义对文化的发展产生影响)属前后颠倒,故不能入选。
  注意:pin down确定;清楚说明。
  22. [答案] [C]ideas about the roles of women have been changing.
  [注释] 推理判断题。本题问:从第一段可以推理,为什么现在妇女可以从事一种职业?第1段最后两句写道:“不能认为我们的本性在社会的或生理的方面来看是不可改变的。随着我们接近21世纪初,生物学和遗传学方面所取得的巨大进步正在从根本上对属于每一种性别的角色、职责和特征提出挑战,可是在不到20年以前,上述观点还被认为是‘无可争辩的。”由此推理,现在妇女可以从事一种职业,因为有关妇女角色的观念一直在改变。故应选[C]。 [A]the change in sex roles is out of the question(性别角色的改变是不可能的)具有较强的干扰性。out of the question意为“不可能的”。有的考生之所以选[A]是因为把out of the question错误地理解为“毫无疑问的”。 [D]the expansion of sciences scarcely remolds the women‘s roles(科学的发展几乎没有改变妇女的角色)属正反颠倒,故不能入选。
  注意:通过词汇手段增强干扰是当前命题的一种趋势。
  23. [答案] [B]prevalent.
  [注释] 细节归纳题。本题问:作者认为,20世纪60年代以前西方的性别歧视状况如何?第2段一开头作者写道:“我们可以有把握地说,除了个别例外,从19世纪初到20世纪60年代,对男女性别的定义和他们各自的作用一直没有变化。”接着,作者对此进行了阐述,最后说,“妇女在家生儿育女。男子外出谋生养家,恪守职责,和平时期,以付家需,战争时期,奔赴疆场。”综上所述,男女并不平等。可见,20世纪60年代以前西方的性别歧视普遍存在。故应选[B]prevalent(普遍存在的;盛行的;流行的)。preferable更可取的;presumable可假设的;precedent先前的;均不合题意。
  24. [答案] [D]some different sex identity is acquired.
  [注释] 推理判断题。本题问:根据第4段,作者似乎还想说明什么?第4段第1句写道:“不同性别所承担的角色是根据适合于每种性别的‘地方?所决定的。”作者谈到了男女的不同“place”。接着作者说:“This sex-based division of the world (private and public) gave rise to a strict dichotomy between the attitudes, which conferred on each its special identity.”(这种根据性别对世界[个人的和公共的]的划分产生了两种严格不同的态度,因而赋予每一种性别所特有的特性。)可见,在作者看来,某种不同的性别特性不是天生的,而是后天因划分了“地方”而逐渐形成的。紧接着,作者对其观点做了阐述。因此,[D]“某种不同的性别特性是后天获得的”是作者似乎要说明的。
  注意:文中所说的“地方”实际上是指“工作岗位”。
  25. [答案] [A]Wish to claim their rights and freedom.
  [注释] 细节辨认题。本题问:按照作者的看法,下面哪一项是妇女参加工作的最重要的原因?最后一段最后一句写道:“最重要的,对于所有妇女来说,工作总是和渴望独立有关的。”可见,[A]“希望得到她们的权利和自由”符合上述句意,因为此处权利与自由即为独立之意。
  26. [答案] [C]the consumers’confidence in the economy.
  [注释] 逻辑结构题。本题问:作者为什么在第一段中提到“消费者分期付款债务的增加”?作者在第1段第2句中提到:The revival in consumer confidence was reflected in the higher proportion of incomes spent for goods and services and the marked increase in consumer willingness to take on installment debt.从句子前后的逻辑关系可以看出,“消费者分期付款债务的增加”反映了他们对经济发展的信心。故应选[C]。[A]、[B]、[D]孤立起来看似乎都有道理,但从段落内部的直接逻辑关系来看似乎是答非所问,故应排除。这种逻辑结构题常考,是近年考研命题的一大特点,考生务必注意:解这类题时切忌凭常识答题,而应密切注意细节之间或论点与论据之间具体的逻辑关系。
  27. [答案] [C]the causes of business development for the period.
  [注释] 段落主旨题。本题问:第2段主要讨论什么?第2段第1句写道:The bases of the business expansion were to be found mainly in the stimulative monetary and fiscal policies that had been pursued. (商业发展的基础主要可以从刺激性的货币政策和财务政策中看到。) 可见第2段主要讨论the bases of the business expansion,选项[C]符合此意。[A]、[B]、[D]均有片面性,没有概括性。
  28. [答案][A] bitter-sweet.
  [注释] 推理判断题。从第3段可以推理,作者对降低国际收支逆差的态度是什么? 从整个段落来看,作者对此问题一方面表示喜,而另一方面又表示忧。可见,作者的态度是甜中有苦、忧喜参半。其他选项均与段落内容不符,故不能入选。
  29. [答案] [B]avoid inflationary pressures.
  [注释] 细节理解题。本题问:按照本文所概述的,国家政策的部分任务是什么?第4段第1句写道:“The underlying task of public policy for the year ahead—and indeed for the longer run—remained a familiar one: to strike the right balance between encouraging healthy economic growth and avoiding inflationary pressures.”(未来一年和更长时期内国家政策的基本任务是在鼓励经济健康发展和避免通货膨胀压力之间取得恰当的平衡。)可见,“避免通货膨胀压力”是国家政策的部分任务。故应选[B]。
  30. [答案] [D]wage and price controls.
  [注释] 细节理解题。本题问:从本文最后一段中可以了解,“第3阶段”计划包括哪些内容?本文最后一段倒数第2句写道: “The Phase Three program of wage and price restraint can contribute to reducing inflation.”(限制工资和价格的第3阶段计划有助于降低通货膨胀。)可见,[D] “工资和价格控制”与上面的句意相符。
  注意:有关经济方面的文章几乎每年阅读理解中都有一篇,考生应积极掌握这类文章中常用的词汇和短语。
  31. [答案][C] is paralleling advertising methods in traditional business settings.
  [注释] 细节理解题。本题问:从第1段中可以了解到互联网的促销广告有什么特点?第1段的主题核心句是该段的最后一句,它写道:“With the dawn of the Internet and its exploding use across the world, the same tactics apply.”(随着互联网的到来以及它在全世界的大量使用,所采用的促销策略依然与以前相同。)可见,选项[C]“与传统环境中的做广告方法相类似。”与上句句意基本相同。故应选[C]。[A]的表述不能入选,因为互联网做广告并未替代传统广告方式。[B]太绝对化,不能入选。[D]干扰性强,它不能入选是因为其不是第1段的中心思想。由此可见,段落核心句常常是考研命题组命题的考点,考生务必注意。
  注意:catch one‘s fancy 吸引某人,合某人心意。
  32. [答案][A] the policy Internet advertisers design to lure clientele and its outcome.
  [注释] 细节归纳题。本题问:第2、3段写来是为了说明什么?选项[A]“互联网广告商设计来引诱顾客的做法及其结果”概括了2、3两段的中心思想:第2段谈具体方法;第3段则谈取得的成果。故答案非[A]莫属。[B] the process and mixed consequences of Internet advertising and shopping.(网上做广告与购物的过程及忧喜参半的后果)与第2、3段段落内容不符。[C]与[D]的表述均存在片面性,不能入选。
  注意:pay top dollar for 为…付高价。
  33. [答案][A] it has to be modified over time to remain effective.
  [注释] 推理判断题。本题问:在分析网上做广告的目前状况时,作者暗示了什么?第4段第1句指出:“然而,当前的形势并不太乐观。”接着提出论据加以阐述。最后在本段结论句中写道:“如果互联网上做广告要继续成为一种能自行发展并有利可图的商业活动,那就必须考虑新的方法使这个行业更具活力。”可见,作者暗示,网上做广告必须与时俱进以便保持其有效作用。选项[A]正是这个意思。[B]“尽管它目前营利,但最终要萧条”不能入选。[C]“旗子正失去它们的广告效用”只谈现象,不谈本质。是强干扰项,考生务必在2011年考试时注意类似干扰。[D]“互联网上做广告将继续减少销量”与本段中心思想不符,因为问题不在于网上做广告本身,而是应该不断改变做广告的形式以吸引顾客。
  34. [答案][B] fulfill their purpose.
  [注释] 词组释义题。本题问:最后一段中“do the trick”意指什么?[A] come to the point(谈正题)与上下文不符;[C] fail of their success(达不到它们的成功)与原义正反颠倒;[D] live up to their promise(实践它们的诺言)是强干扰项,命题者采用概念偷换的手法来干扰考生的判断。do the trick意为“奏效”而不是“实践诺言”。最后一段写道:“由于技术领域最近不景气和经济减速,即使新的做法可能也不奏效。由于消费者要存更多的钱并不断光顾传统的房地产公司而不是互联网上相应的公司,所以互联网业务的命运未卜。”根据上述语言环境可以判断[B]为正确选项。
  35. [答案][D] approval so far but uncertainty in the future.
  [注释] 作者态度题。本题问:根据本文,作者对网上做广告的态度可归纳为什么?从整个文章来看,前半篇讲述网上做广告的策略、具体做法和成果。后半篇指出存在的问题以及很难预测的未来。[A]“有保留的同意但不满”;[B]“缺少观点的客观分析”;[C]“热情支持但有点蔑视”;均不合全文所体现的作者态度。只有[D]“至今赞同但对未来不能肯定”反映了作者对网上广告的看法。
  注意:考生解阅读理解选择题时要区分宏观与微观、全局与局部、本质与现象。
  36. [答案] [C]way in which each defines the role of the photographer.
  [注释] 细节归纳题。本题问:根据本文,两个直接对立的摄影观念主要区别何在?第1段最后一句写道:“That is, photography has two directly opposite ideals: in the first, photography is about the world and the photographer is a mere observer who counts for little; but in the second, photography is the instrument of fearlessness, questing subjectivity and the photographer is all.”(那就是说,关于摄影有两个直接对立的观念:第一种观念认为,摄影是反映世界的,而摄影师只是一个无足轻重的观察者;但第二种观念则主张,摄影是一种探究主观世界的无畏的工具,摄影师决定一切。) 由此可见,两种观念的区别就在于对摄影师所起作用的定义不同。故应选[C]。
  37. [答案] [B]cyclically recurring.
  [注释] 细节理解题。本题问:根据第2段,摄影师对摄影的两种观念中每个观念的兴趣可用下面哪一种表述来描述?第2段最后一句写道:“What photographers do cannot be characterized as simply predatory or as simply, and essentially, benevolent. As a consequence, one ideal of picture?taking or the other is always being rediscovered and championed.”(摄影者所做的事不能简单地定性为掠夺式的,也不能简单地定性为实质上是友好的行善行为。因此,有关照相的这一观念或那一观念总是被重新发现并受到支持。) 言外之意,这两种观念中,有时一种观念被发现并受到支持,有时另一种观念被发现并受到支持。可见,摄影师有时对一种观念感兴趣,有时又对另一种观念感兴趣,即这种兴趣是周期性反复出现的。故应选[B]。[D]“自发地发生的”不合题意。
  注意:这类细节题是难度较大的推断型理解题,要求考生具有很强的逻辑归纳能力。
  38. [答案] [D]they can change the viewer?s sensibilities.
  [注释] 细节辨认题。本题问:本文中有关照片方面下面哪一点没有谈到?[A]They can display a cropped reality. (它们能展示经过剪辑的现实。)第1段第2句中已经谈到:Photographs depict objective realities that already exist, ... [B]They can convey information. (它们能传达信息。)第3段第3句中也已提及:The steady growth of these powers has made possible the extraordinary informativeness... [C]They can depict the photographer?s temperament. (它们能够描绘摄影者的性情。)第1段第3句中已写到:And they depict an individual photographer?s temperament,...只有[D]They can change the viewer?s sensibilities. (它们能改变观赏者的易受刺激的情感。)文中没有提到。故应选[D]。
  39. [答案] [A]the relationship between photographic originality and technology.
  [注释] 逻辑结构题。本题问:作者提到Harold Edgerton的作品是为了提供一个什么例子?第3段第3句写道:“The steady growth of these powers has made possible the extraordinary informativeness and imaginative formal beauty of many photographs, like Harold Edgerton?s high?speed photographs of a bullet hitting its target or of the swirls and eddies of a tennis stroke. ”(随着照相机威力的不断增大已有可能拍出许多信息非凡的、富有想象力的外观漂亮的照片,如Harold Edgerton所拍摄的关于子弹击中目标或网球抽打时产生漩涡的快速照片。) 从上面的表述中我们可以看到,作者提到Harold Edgerton的作品是为了提供一个摄影艺术的独创性和技术发展之间关系的例子。故应选[A]。
  40. [答案] [C]analyzing the influence of photographic ideals on picture?taking.
  [注释] 全文主旨题。本题问:本文作者主要讨论什么?本文第1段提出对摄影术的两种不同观念。第2段分别阐述了这两种观念的由来及摄影师对这两种观念中任何一种的兴趣是反复交替的。第3段指出,这两种观念共存的结果是经常发生对摄影手段的不同看法。最后一段认为,这种对摄影手段的矛盾心理决定审美品位的发展趋向。综上所述,本文作者主要分析了两种摄影观念对照相术的影响。故应选[C]。
  注意:本文语言难度较大,可作为英译汉练习之用。故提供参考译文如下:
  照相是一种既反映客观世界,又表达非凡自我的艺术。照片描绘已经存在的许多客观现实,尽管只有照相机才能揭示这些客观现实。照片描绘一个摄影者的气质,这种气质是通过照相机从现实中取材而表现出来的。那就是说,摄影包含两个直接对立的观念:第一,摄影是反映世界的,摄影者只不过是一个无足轻重的观察者;但是,第二,摄影是探索主观性的无畏工具,摄影者决定一切。
  这两个相互冲突的观念源自摄影者和摄影鉴赏者对“照”相过程中的闯劲所表现出来的不安心情。这样一来,把摄影者看做是观察者的观念是具有吸引力的,因为这种想法间接地否认了照相是一种咄咄逼人的行为。当然,问题并不如此清晰。摄影者的所作所为不能简单地定性为掠夺式的行为,也不能简单地定性为实质上是友好的行善行为。因此,关于照相的这种观念或那种观念总是被重新发现并受到支持的。
  这两种观念共存的一个重要的结果是:经常发生对待摄影手段的矛盾心理。不论摄影可能成为一种同绘画一样的个性表现的论断正确与否,摄影的独创性总是同照相机的机械能力密切相连的。随着照相机能力的持续发展,有可能创造出许多具有非凡信息含量并富有想象力的漂亮的照片。例如哈罗德·埃杰顿所拍摄的关于子弹击中目标或网球抽打时产生漩涡的快速照片。但是当照相机变得越来越高级,越来越自动化时,有些摄影者很想不用这种照相机,或者暗示实际上不用这种照相机,而宁愿用现代化以前的照相技术。因为粗制的、较差的照相机械被认为能得到更有趣、更动人的效果,给创造活动留有更大的余地。例如许多摄影师包括韦克欧·埃文斯和卡蒂埃·布雷桑拒绝使用现代装备,实际上是为了维护他们的面子。这些摄影师开始怀疑照相机作为“快看”工具的价值。卡蒂埃·布雷桑事实上断言:现代照相机可能看得太快了。
  这种对待摄影手段的矛盾心理决定审美的趋向。对未来(看得越来越快)的狂热崇拜不时同希望回复到更纯正的过去(那时的形象具有手工业特征)交替发生。这种对某些早期摄影业的怀旧情绪目前正广泛流行。这就是目前热衷于银板照相法和被遗忘的19世纪省城摄影师的作品的原因。看来,摄影师和摄影鉴赏者需要周期性地抵制他们自己已经具有的知识。
  小结
  1) 按大纲规定,阅读部分4篇文章总字数为1600左右。本卷阅读试题总字数为1767,后两篇难度较大,符合2011年试题的命题趋势。
  2) 从本卷4篇文章的题材来看,第1篇是关于性别与职业;第2篇关于美国经济,第3篇是关于网络做广告的现状和未来,第4篇关于摄影。可见,其题材与近年考题的选材原则基本一致。
  3) 从本卷4篇文章的题目类型来看,有细节理解题、细节辨认题、词汇释义题、总结归纳题、推理判断题、逻辑结构题、作者观点题和全文主旨题。与2010年试题类型相一致。
  4) “阅读理解”解题时间通常为60~65分钟。解题时间与答题正确率有密切关系。考生应根据实际情况调整解题时间。要牢记先易后难!
  5) 解题方法:先浏览第1段,尽可能找到全文主题信息词。然后扫描第1题,划出题干中的信息词,到相应段落中寻找相关的信息词,划出信息词、搜索目标信息,比对4个选项,排除干扰项,确定正确答案。其他4题以此类推。如题目顺序与段落顺序不一致,要以变应变、机动灵活。
  Part B
  41. [答案] [D]
  [注释] 第1段讲到文明人类发展的两个阶段:原始武器的发明和火的发现,尽管无人知晓,人类是什么时候开始使用火的。选项[D]告诉我们:“语言的起源也是模糊不清的。毫无疑问,语言是一步一步逐渐开始形成的。”可见,作者认为,原始武器的发明、火的发现和语言的形成都是渐进的。所以,从逻辑上看,第1段与[D]是一脉相承的。接着,作者从人类的语言联系到动物的叫声,并指出人的言语也是从叫声开始的,逐渐增加其数量以便达到不同的目的。综上所述,[D]符合上下文的逻辑搭配。解题时考生应注意上下文中关键信息词的连结。如,Nobody—obscure—language—cries。
  42. [答案] [A]
  [注释] 上文讲到有人认为,人类文明发展中,图形语言先于口头语言。[A]则表示,作者认为,二者很可能是相辅相成的,而且语言是人类发展中最重要的因素。可见,[A]是上文的逻辑延续,并且是段落的结论。
  43. [答案] [F]
  [注释] 上文讲到农业使得在可以种植的地区(regions)人类数量的增加成为可能。[F]“这些地区起初只是靠大自然而肥沃的地区……”是正确选项,因为These正好指代上句中的regions,并构成上下文逻辑的连贯性。
  注意:代词与所代名词的一致性也是重要的解题对策之一。
  44. [答案] [B]
  [注释] 上面各段叙述了人类文明发展中的几件大事:原始武器的发明、火的使用、语言的逐渐形成、饲养动物和农业。下面一段一开头就写道:“这些发明和发现使文明社会的存在成为可能。”可见,下文是结论段。那么在上文与结论段之间必定还有一段来介绍另一件大事。[B]正好符合全文连贯性的需要:“还有一项根本性的技术进步是书写……”。
  45. [答案] [E]
  [注释] 上文讲到:“……起初,文明人类生活的区域局限于尼罗河、幼发拉底河、底格里斯和印度河,但是在所述时期结束时这个区域已经覆盖了更多的地球上可居住地区。我并不想认为,在这么长的时间里就没有技术进步。”选项[E]一开头就说:“实际上,曾经取得过进步——具有重大意义的发明就有两项,即火药和航海指南针……”可见,关键信息词progress起到了承上启下的桥梁作用。
  小结
  1. 选择搭配题的考点是:
  1) 语段结构:段首句、扩展句和结论句之间在逻辑上的一致性。
  2) 语篇结构:起、承、转、合。段落与段落之间语篇结构的连贯性。
  3) 逻辑结构:语段内论点与论据的逻辑一致性。小标题与段落内容在逻辑上的一致性。
  2. 选择搭配题的解题思路是:
  1) 第一种题型:浏览全文、把握主题,分段解题、关键信息词连结,针对题目、各个突破。
  2) 第二种题型:吃透第一段,注意段落结尾句和段首句的承上启下功能,狠抓段落与段落之间联系的形态标志(信息词)和逻辑衔接,先慢后快。
  3) 第三种题型:把握语段内论点与论据的一致性。
  4) 第四种题型:浏览段落,把握小标题与段落在内容上的一致性。
  3. 解题时间:20分钟左右。
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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  Part C
  46. [答案]
  其余的时间我们则花在称之为娱乐的各种活动上。“娱乐”是一个文雅的词,它掩盖了这样一个事实,即我们通常甚至在闲暇时间也不是在娱乐,而是把闲暇时间花在各种形式的消极的享受或消遣上。
  [注释]allow sth. for sth. else把…拨出来为…用。the rest在句中作spend的宾语,意为“其他时间”。disguise原意为“假装,假扮;隐藏,遮掩”。此句中引申译成“掩盖”。
  47. [答案]
  我想,正是积极娱乐(业余体育运动)的减少,以及纯粹感官消遣的大量增加,才引起社会学对这个问题的关注。
  [注释]It is...which...是强调句型。在美国英语中强调句型的连词常用which代替that。give rise to是习语,意为“引起”。
  48. [答案]
  如果我们乐观的话,这种精神食粮(电视节目)就可能是空虚乏味的,因而不会对任何人产生许多持久的影响。
  [注释]diet在此处可引申为“精神食粮”或“电视节目”;thin and unnourishing可以引申为“空虚乏味”。too...to...太…以至于不…。give an account of叙述,介绍。
  49. [答案]
  只有当消遣是积极的、自己参与并实践了的时候,它才能真正被称为娱乐,并且只有这样,它才是一种对闲暇的正常支配。
  [注释]as such有两个含义:一个为“本身”;另一个为“照这样”。如:He is a child. You should treat him as such.
  50. [答案]
  所有这些形形色色的职业,除了都消耗我们的时间,给我们留下很少空闲外,就没有任何共同之处了。
  小结
  按考试大纲的要求,英译汉短文总字数约400字。划线句子的总字数为150字左右。英译汉解题时间一般为30分钟左右。本文365字,5个划线句子的长度分别为:42字,31字,23字, 27字和25字,总计148字。可见,本卷英译汉试题的翻译量与2010年同步,难度属中等。
  Section ⅢWriting
  Part A
  51. 写摘要的步骤:
  1. 在汉语文章上用铅笔划出全文要点。
帮助孩子重新振作
  孩子得不到帮助,后果可能很严重。根据一次全国性调查,父母离异或分居的小孩在接下来的3年内比别的小孩更有可能出现健康问题。父母离异的小孩留级率或停学率可能是别的小孩的两倍, 需要咨询的概率很可能比别的小孩多3倍。
  仅仅靠时间无法愈合这类精神创伤,这些孩子需要成年人的帮助。下面提供三项策略,是我在为这类有问题的家庭提供咨询时总结出来的:
  一、 尽早将真相告诉小孩。我们提出了以下几个办法:
亲自向孩子透露令人沮丧的消息。当孩子意识到自己和他所熟悉并信任的某个人共同分享真相时,他能正确面对几乎任何事。如果有可能,离异的父母双方在孩子听到他们离异的消息时都应在场。
  如果家庭压力与一个意外事故有关,要说清楚事故的原委。否则,有些孩子会产生无端的负罪感。
  如果有较大的突发事件,要小心地解释家庭生活可能会发生的变化。对孩子来说,了解任何事实比不明就里强。
  二、 鼓励孩子将自己的情绪讲出来,但如果孩子还没准备好,也别强迫他们。小孩子和成年人一样,也需要谈谈自己的缺憾。你可以用下面几个方法帮他们敞开心扉:
  发生悲剧时,首先跟孩子聊聊你自己的感受和烦恼,以便使孩子更容易表达出他们的感受。然后问些能引导进一步讨论的问题。
  跟孩子谈话要挑选适当的时机和场合。
  如果你无法用言语表达痛苦或担忧,可以考虑给你的孩子写一封信。让孩子理解你的内心感受很重要,这样他们才能更好地理解他们自己的感受。
  三、 着眼于未来。我在伊利诺伊州的几个朋友改建了住房。改建工程完成一个星期后,一场大火烧毁了房子,全家人差点儿葬身火海。
  过后,父母和孩子们坐下来谈话。“一切都过去了,”母亲说,“以后的生活绝不会跟以前一样,一定会再好起来的。”经过一年的努力,全家人搬进了新居,新房子就建在原先房子的所在地。他们的财产比以前少多了,但是他们感情上变坚强了,决心在生活上翻开新的一页。
  当危机袭来时,不健康的家庭会分崩离析,健康的家庭会向前看,重新构建,他们通常会遵照下面的三条基本原则:
  做父母的得先治愈自己的创伤。如果父母中的一方或父母双方带头的话,孩子就比较容易从一次较大的家庭挫折中重新振作起来。衣阿华州立大学的一些研究人员在研究中西部450个家庭的青少年受家庭经济困难的影响时发现,家庭经济问题对十几岁少年的影响比其父母对家庭经                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业
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