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2012考研英语阅读理解考前模拟题_跨考网

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发表于 2018-12-8 12:34:28 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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卷一
 Section ⅡReading Comprehension
  Part A
  Directions:
  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text
by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
  Text1
  We have known for a long time that the organization of any
particular society is influenced by the definition of the sexes and the
distinction drawn between them. But we have realized only recently that the
identity of each sex is not so easy to pin down, and that definitions evolve in
accordance with different types of culture known to us, that is, scientific
discoveries and ideological revolutions. Our nature is not considered as
immutable, either socially or biologically. As we approach the beginning of the
21st century, the substantial progress made in biology and genetics is
radically challenging the roles, responsibilities and specific characteristics
attributed to each sex, and yet, scarcely twenty years ago, these were thought
to be “beyond dispute”.
  We can safely say, with a few minor exceptions, that the definition
of the sexes and their respective functions remained unchanged in the West from
the beginning of the 19th century to the 1960s. The role distinction, raised in
some cases to the status of uncompromising dualism on a strongly hierarchical
model, lasted throughout this period, appealing for its justification to
nature, religion and customs alleged to have existed since the dawn of time.
The woman bore children and took care of the home. The man set out to conquer
the world and was responsible for the survival of his family, by satisfying
their needs in peacetime and going to war when necessary.
  The entire world order rested on the divergence of the sexes. Any
overlapping or confusion between the roles was seen as a threat to the
time-honored order of things. It was felt to be against nature, a deviation
from the norm.
  Sex roles were determined according to the “place”appropriate to
each. Women's place was, first and foremost, in the home. The outside world,
i.e. workshops, factories and business firms, belonged to men. This sex-based
division of the world (private and public) gave rise to a strict dichotomy
between the attitudes, which conferred on each its special identity. The woman,
sequestered at home, “cared, nurtured and conserved”. To do this, she had no
need to be daring, ambitious, tough or competitive. The man, on the other hand,
competing with his fellow men, was caught up every day in the struggle for
survival, and hence developed those characteristics which were thought natural
in a man.
  Today, many women go out to work, and their reasons for doing so
have changed considerably. Besides the traditional financial incentives, we
find ambition and personal fulfillment motivating those in the most favorable
circumstances, and the wish to have a social life and to get out of their
domestic isolation influencing others. Above all, for all women, work is
invariably connected with the desire for independence. (454 words)
  Notes: pin down 把…讲明确;确定。immutable不可改变的。dualism双重论。divergence分歧,偏离。overlapping部分巧合、一致。time-honored 由来已久的。dichotomy 一分为二,对立。sequester使隔离。be caught up in 被缠住于,如:He is caught up in the trivia (琐事) of everyday
things. unduly过度地,不恰当地。
  21. It is only in recent years that we have recognized that
  [A]there is almost no clue to the identity of both sexes.
  [B]the role distinction between different sexes is conspicuous.
  [C]the different definitions of sexes bears on the development of
culture.
  [D]the progress of civilization greatly influences the role
definitions of sexes.
  22. From paragraph 1 we can infer that it is now possible for women
to embark on a career because
  [A]the change in sex roles is out of the question.
  [B]women's lib has been going on for many years.
  [C]ideas about the roles of women have been changing.
  [D]the expansion of sciences scarcely remolds the women's roles.
  23. The author believes that sex discrimination in the West before
the 1960s was
  [A]preferable.
  [B]prevalent.
  [C]presumable.
  [D]precedent.
  24. According to the fourth paragraph, the author seems to think
that
  [A]female passivity is natural.
  [B]men and women are physically identical.
  [C]men are born competitive and aggressive.
  [D]some different sex identity is acquired.
  25. According to the author, which of the following is the most
important reason for women to go to work?
  [A]Wish to claim their rights and freedom.
  [B]Ambition and self-fulfillment.
  [C]Financial incentives.
  [D]Desire for a social life.

                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 13:38:33 | 显示全部楼层

                        

  Text2
  The domestic economy in the United States expanded in a
remarkably vigorous and steady fashion. The revival in consumer confidence was
reflected in the higher proportion of incomes spent for goods and services and
the marked increase in consumer willingness to take on installment debt. A
parallel strengthening in business psychology was manifested in a stepped-up
rate of plant and equipment spending and a gradual pickup in expenses for
inventory. Confidence in the economy was also reflected in the strength of the
stock market and in the stability of the bond market. For the year as a whole,
consumer and business sentiment benefited from the ease in East-West tensions.
  The bases of the business expansion were to be found mainly in the
stimulative monetary and fiscal policies that had been pursued. Moreover, the
restoration of sounder liquidity positions and tighter management control of
production efficiency had also helped lay the groundwork for a strong
expansion. In addition, the economic policy moves made by the President had
served to renew optimism on the business outlook while boosting hopes that
inflation would be brought under more effective control. Finally, of course,
the economy was able to grow as vigorously as it did because sufficient leeway
existed in terms of idle men and machines.
  The United States
balance of payments deficit declined sharply. Nevertheless, by any other test,
the deficit remained very large, and there was actually a substantial
deterioration in our trade account to a sizable deficit, almost two-thirds of
which was with Japan.
While the overall trade performance proved disappointing, there are still good
reasons for expecting the delayed impact of devaluation to produce in time a
significant strengthening in our trade picture. Given the size of the Japanese
component of our trade deficit, however, the outcome will depend importantly on
the extent of the corrective measures undertaken by Japan. Also important will be our
own efforts in the United
  States to fashion internal policies
consistent with an improvement in our external balance.
  The underlying task of public policy for the year ahead—and indeed
for the longer run—remained a familiar one: to strike the right balance between
encouraging healthy economic growth and avoiding inflationary pressures. With
the economy showing sustained and vigorous growth, and with the currency crisis
highlighting the need to improve our competitive posture internationally, the
emphasis seemed to be shifting to the problem of inflation. The Phase Three
program of wage and price restraint can contribute to reducing inflation.
Unless productivity growth is unexpectedly large, however, the expansion of
real output must eventually begin to slow down to the economy's larger run
growth potential if generalized demand pressures on prices are to be avoided.
(449 words)
  Notes: inventory 存货。East-West tensions 东西方紧张局势。fiscal (与国库的钱有关的)财务的(常指税收)。liquidity 周转率,清偿力。leeway 余地。given 鉴于,由于。the Phase Three program 第三阶段计划。
  26. The author mentions increased installment debt in the first
paragraph in order to show
  [A]the continuing expansion of the economy.
  [B]the growth of consumer purchasing power.
  [C]the consumers'confidence in the economy.
  [D]the soaring consumer incomes for spending.
  27. Paragraph 2 mainly deals with
  [A]the revival of stronger liquidity positions.
  [B]the stimulative monetary and fiscal policies.
  [C]the causes of business development for the period.
  [D]economic policy measures suggested by the President.
  28. It can be inferred from the third paragraph that the author's
attitude toward the reduction of the international payments deficit seems
  [A]bitter-sweet.
  [B]optimistic.
  [C]sympathetic
  [D]depressing.
  29. Part of the public policy task, as outlined in the text, is to
  [A]prevent payments deficit.
  [B]avoid inflationary pressures.
  [C]devalue the dollar.
  [D]increase the balance of trade.
  30. It can be learned from the last paragraph that the Phase Three
program contained
  [A]reduced government spending.
  [B]devaluation of the dollar.
  [C]productivity measures.
  [D]wage and price controls.

                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 14:54:41 | 显示全部楼层

                        

 Part B
  Directions:
  In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For
Questions 41—45, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit into
each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in
any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
  The first two stages in the development of civilized man were
probably the invention of primitive weapons and the discovery of fire, although
nobody knows exactly when he acquired the use of the latter.
  41)______________________ Animals have a few cries that serve as
signals, but even the highest apes have not been found able to pronounce words,
even with the most intensive professional instruction. The superior brain of
man is apparently a necessity for the mastering of speech. When man became
sufficiently intelligent, we must suppose that he gradually increased the
number of cries for different purposes. It was a great day when he discovered that
speech could be used for narrative. There are those who think that in this
respect picture language preceded oral language. A man could draw a picture on
the wall of his cave to show in which direction he had gone, or what prey he
hoped to catch. 42)_________________________
  Two important stages came not so long before the dawn of written
history. The first was the domestication of animals; the second was
agriculture. Agriculture made possible an immense increase in the number of the
human species in the regions where it could be successfully practiced.
43)___________________________
  44)______________________________
  These inventions and discoveries—fire, speech, weapons domestic
animals, agriculture, and writing—made the existence of civilized communities
possible. From about 3000 B.C. until the beginning of the Industrial Revolution
less than two hundred years ago there was no technical advance comparable to
these. During this long period man had time to become accustomed to his
technique, and to develop the beliefs and political organizations appropriate
to it. There was, of course, an immense extension in the area of civilized
life. At first it had been confined to the Nile, the Euphrates, the Tigris, and
the Indus, but at the end of the period in
question it covered much the greatest part of the inhabitable globe. I do not
mean to suggest that there was no technical progress during the time.
45)______________________ (512 words)
  Notes: ape 猿。pastoral nomad 田园式的游牧部落的人。the Euphrates 幼发拉底河。the Tigris 底格里斯河。the Indus 印度河。in question所谈的(在名词后作后置定语)。
  [A] Probably picture language and oral language developed side by
side. I am inclined to think that language has been the most important single
factor in the development of man.
  [B] Another fundamental technical advance was writing, which, like
spoken language, developed out of pictures, but as soon as it had reached a
certain stage, it was possible to keep records and transmit information to
people who were not present when the information was given.
  [C] With the development of civilization, primitive people who lived
in caves at that time badly needed a language, which would help them to
communicate with one another.
  [D] The origin of language is also obscure. No doubt it began very
gradually.
  [E] In fact, there was progress—there were even two inventions of
very great importance, namely, gunpowder and the mariner's compass—but neither
of these can be compared in their revolutionary power to such things as speech
and writing and agriculture.
       转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业
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