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发表于 2018-12-8 12:34:27 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  Section I Use of English
  Directions:
  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank
and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
  In 1924 American’ National Research Council sent to engineers to supervise
a series of industrial experiments at a large telephone-parts factory called the
Hawthorne Plant near Chicago. It hoped they would learn how stop-floor
lignting__1__workers productivity. Instead, the studies ended __2___giving their
name to the “Hawthorne effect”, the extremely influential idea that the
very___3____to being experimented upon changed subjects’ behavior.
  The idea arose because of the __4____behavior of the women in the Hawthorne
plant. According to __5____of the experiments, their hourly output rose when
lighting was increased, but also when it was dimmed. It did not __6____what was
done in the experiment; ___7_someting was changed ,productivity rose.
A(n)___8___that they were being experimented upon seemed to be ____9___to alter
workers’ behavior ____10____itself.
  After several decades, the same data were _11__ to econometric the
analysis. Hawthorne experiments has another surprise store _12 __the
descriptions on record, no systematic _13__ was found that levels of
productivity were related to changes in lighting. It turns out that peculiar way
of conducting the experiments may be have let to__ 14__ interpretation of what
happed.__ 15___ , lighting was always changed on a Sunday .When work started
again on Monday, output __16___ rose compared with the previous Saturday and__
17 __to rise for the next couple of days.__ 18__ , a comparison with data for
weeks when there was no experimentation showed that output always went up on
Monday, workers__ 19__ to be diligent for the first few days of the week in any
case , before __20 __a plateau and then slackening off. This suggests that the
alleged” Hawthorne effect “ is hard to pin down.
  1. [A] affected [B] achieved [C] extracted [D] restored
  2. [A] at [B]up[C] with [D] off
  3. [A]truth [B]sight [C] act [D] proof
  4. [A] controversial [B] perplexing [C]mischievous [D] ambiguous
  5. [A]requirements [B]explanations [C] accounts [D] assessments
  6. [A] conclude [B] matter[C] indicate [D] work
  7. [A] as far as [B] for fear that [C] in case that [D] so long as
  8. [A] awareness[B] expectation [C] sentiment [D] illusion
  9. [A] suitable[B] excessive [C] enough [D] abundant
  10. [A] about [B] for[C] on [D] by
  11. [A] compared [B]shown [C] subjected [D] conveyed
  12. [A] contrary to [B] consistent with [C] parallel with [D] pealliar
to
  13. [A] evidence [B]guidance [C]implication [D]source
  14. [A] disputable [B]enlightening [C]reliable [D]misleading
  15. [A] In contrast [B] For example [C] In consequence [D] As usual
  16. [A] duly [B]accidentally [C] unpredictably [D] suddenly
  17. [A]failed [B]ceased [C]started [D]continued
  18. [A]Therefore [B]Furthermore [C]However [D]Meanwhile
  19. [A]Attempted [B]tended [C]chose [D]intenced
  20. [A]breaking [B]climbing [C]surpassing [D]hiting
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 13:14:48 | 显示全部楼层

                          Section II Reading Comprehension
  Part A
  Directions:
  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by
choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40
points)
  Text 1
  Of all the changes that have taken place in English-language newspapers
during the past quarter-century, perhaps the most far-reaching has been the
inexorable decline in the scope and seriousness of their arts coverage.
  It is difficult to the point of impossibility for the average reader under
the age of forty to imagine a time when high-quality arts criticism could be
found in most big-city newspapers. Yet a considerable number of the most
significant collections of criticism published in the 20th century consisted in
large part of newspaper reviews. To read such books today is to marvel at the
fact that their learned contents were once deemed suitable for publication in
general-circulation dailies.
  We are even farther removed from the unfocused newspaper reviews published
in England between the turn of the 20th century and the eve of World War II, at
a time when newsprint was dirt-cheap and stylish arts criticism was considered
an ornament to the publications in which it appeared. In those far-off days, it
was taken for granted that the critics of major papers would write in detail and
at length about the events they covered. Theirs was a serious business, and even
those reviewers who wore their learning lightly, like George Bernard Shaw and
Ernest Newman, could be trusted to know what they were about. These men believed
in journalism as a calling, and were proud to be published in the daily press.
“So few authors have brains enough or literary gift enough to keep their own end
up in journalism,” Newman wrote, “that I am tempted to define ‘journalism’ as ‘a
term of contempt applied by writers who are not read to writers who are.’”
  Unfortunately, these critics are virtually forgotten. Neville Cardus, who
wrote for the Manchester Guardian from 1917 until shortly before his death in
1975, is now known solely as a writer of essays on the game of cricket. During
his lifetime, though, he was also one of England’s foremost classical-music
critics, a stylist so widely admired that his Autobiography (1947) became a
best-seller. He was knighted in 1967, the first music critic to be so honored.
Yet only one of his books is now in print, and his vast body of writings on
music is unknown save to specialists.
  Is there any chance that Cardus’s criticism will enjoy a revival? The
prospect seems remote. Journalistic tastes had changed long before his death,
and postmodern readers have little use for the richly upholstered Vicwardian
prose in which he specialized. Moreover, the amateur tradition in music
criticism has been in headlong retreat.
  21. It is indicated in Paragraphs 1 and 2 that
  [A] arts criticism has disappeared from big-city newspapers.
  [B] English-language newspapers used to carry more arts reviews.
  [C] high-quality newspapers retain a large body of readers.
  [D] young readers doubt the suitability of criticism on dailies.
  22. Newspaper reviews in England before World War II were characterized
by
  [A] free themes.
  [B] casual style.
  [C] elaborate layout.
  [D] radical viewpoints.
  23. Which of the following would Shaw and Newman most probably agree
on?
  [A] It is writers' duty to fulfill journalistic goals.
  [B] It is contemptible for writers to be journalists.
  [C] Writers are likely to be tempted into journalism.
  [D] Not all writers are capable of journalistic writing.
  24. What can be learned about Cardus according to the last two
paragraphs?
  [A] His music criticism may not appeal to readers today.
  [B] His reputation as a music critic has long been in dispute.
  [C] His style caters largely to modern specialists.
  [D] His writings fail to follow the amateur tradition.
  25. What would be the best title for the text?
  [A] Newspapers of the Good Old Days
  [B] The Lost Horizon in Newspapers
  [C] Mournful Decline of Journalism
  [D] Prominent Critics in Memory
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 13:55:08 | 显示全部楼层

                          Text 2
  Over the past decade, thousands of patents have been granted for what are
called business methods. Amazon.com received one for its "one-click" online
payment system. Merrill Lynch got legal protection for an asset allocation
strategy. One inventor patented a technique for lifting a box.
  Now the nation's top patent court appears completely ready to scale back on
business-method patents, which have been controversial ever since they were
first authorized 10 years ago. In a move that has intellectual-property lawyers
abuzz the U.S. court of Appeals for the federal circuit said it would use a
particular case to conduct a broad review of business-method patents. In re
Bilski, as the case is known , is "a very big deal", says Dennis D. Crouch of
the University of Missouri School of law. It "has the potential to eliminate an
entire class of patents."
  Curbs on business-method claims would be a dramatic about-face, because it
was the federal circuit itself that introduced such patents with is 1998
decision in the so-called state Street Bank case, approving a patent on a way of
pooling mutual-fund assets. That ruling produced an explosion in business-method
patent filings, initially by emerging internet companies trying to stake out
exclusive rights to specific types of online transactions. Later, move
established companies raced to add such patents to their files, if only as a
defensive move against rivals that might beat them to the punch. In 2005, IBM
noted in a court filing that it had been issued more than 300 business-method
patents despite the fact that it questioned the legal basis for granting them.
Similarly, some Wall Street investment films armed themselves with patents for
financial products, even as they took positions in court cases opposing the
practice.
  The Bilski case involves a claimed patent on a method for hedging risk in
the energy market. The Federal circuit issued an unusual order stating that the
case would be heard by all 12 of the court's judges, rather than a typical panel
of three, and that one issue it wants to evaluate is whether it should
"reconsider" its state street Bank ruling.
  The Federal Circuit's action comes in the wake of a series of recent
decisions by the supreme Court that has narrowed the scope of protections for
patent holders. Last April, for example the justices signaled that too many
patents were being upheld for "inventions" that are obvious. The judges on the
Federal circuit are "reacting to the anti-patent trend at the Supreme Court",
says Harold C. Wegner, a patent attorney and professor at George Washington
University Law School.
  26. Business-method patents have recently aroused concern because of
  [A] their limited value to business
  [B] their connection with asset allocation
  [C] the possible restriction on their granting
  [D] the controversy over authorization
  27. Which of the following is true of the Bilski case?
  [A] Its ruling complies with the court decisions
  [B] It involves a very big business transaction
  [C] It has been dismissed by the Federal Circuit
  [D] It may change the legal practices in the U.S.
  28. The word "about-face" (Line 1, Para 3) most probably means
  [A] loss of good will
  [B] increase of hostility
  [C] change of attitude
  [D] enhancement of dignity
  29. We learn from the last two paragraphs that business-method patents
  [A] are immune to legal challenges
  [B] are often unnecessarily issued
  [C] lower the esteem for patent holders
  [D] increase the incidence of risks
  30. Which of the following would be the subject of the text?
  [A] A looming threat to business-method patents
  [B] Protection for business-method patent holders
  [C] A legal case regarding business-method patents
  [D] A prevailing trend against business-method patents
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
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发表于 2018-12-8 14:13:21 | 显示全部楼层

                          Text 3
  In his book The Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell argues that social
epidemics are driven in large part by the acting of a tiny minority of special
individuals, often called influentials, who are unusually informed, persuasive,
or well-connected. The idea is intuitively compelling, but it doesn't explain
how ideas actually spread.
  The supposed importance of influentials derives from a plausible sounding
but largely untested theory called the "two step flow of communication":
Information flows from the media to the influentials and from them to everyone
else. Marketers have embraced the two-step flow because it suggests that if they
can just find and influence the influentials, those selected people will do most
of the work for them. The theory also seems to explain the sudden and unexpected
popularity of certain looks, brands, or neighborhoods. In many such cases, a
cursory search for causes finds that some small group of people was wearing,
promoting, or developing whatever it is before anyone else paid attention.
Anecdotal evidence of this kind fits nicely with the idea that only certain
special people can drive trends
  In their recent work, however, some researchers have come up with the
finding that influentials have far less impact on social epidemics than is
generally supposed. In fact, they don't seem to be required of all.
  The researchers' argument stems from a simple observing about social
influence, with the exception of a few celebrities like Oprah Winfrey—whose
outsize presence is primarily a function of media, not interpersonal,
influence—even the most influential members of a population simply don't
interact with that many others. Yet it is precisely these non-celebrity
influentials who, according to the two-step-flow theory, are supposed to drive
social epidemics by influencing their friends and colleagues directly. For a
social epidemic to occur, however, each person so affected, must then influence
his or her own acquaintances, who must in turn influence theirs, and so on; and
just how many others pay attention to each of these people has little to do with
the initial influential. If people in the network just two degrees removed from
the initial influential prove resistant, for example from the initial
influential prove resistant, for example the cascade of change won't propagate
very far or affect many people.
  Building on the basic truth about interpersonal influence, the researchers
studied the dynamics of populations manipulating a number of variables relating
of populations, manipulating a number of variables relating to people's ability
to influence others and their tendency to be influenced. Our work shows that the
principal requirement for what we call "global cascades"– the widespread
propagation of influence through networks – is the presence not of a few
influentials but, rather, of a critical mass of easily influenced people, each
of whom adopts, say, a look or a brand after being exposed to a single adopting
neighbor. Regardless of how influential an individual is locally, he or she can
exert global influence only if this critical mass is available to propagate a
chain reaction.
  31. By citing the book The Tipping Point, the author intends to
  [A] analyze the consequences of social epidemics
  [B] discuss influentials' function in spreading ideas
  [C] exemplify people's intuitive response to social epidemics
  [D] describe the essential characteristics of influentials.
  32. The author suggests that the "two-step-flow theory"
  [A] serves as a solution to marketing problems
  [B] has helped explain certain prevalent trends
  [C] has won support from influentials
  [D] requires solid evidence for its validity
  33. What the researchers have observed recently shows that
  [A] the power of influence goes with social interactions
  [B] interpersonal links can be enhanced through the media
  [C] influentials have more channels to reach the public
  [D] most celebrities enjoy wide media attention
  34. The underlined phrase "these people" in paragraph 4 refers to the ones
who
  [A] stay outside the network of social influence
  [B] have little contact with the source of influence
  [C] are influenced and then influence others
  [D] are influenced by the initial influential
  35. what is the essential element in the dynamics of social influence?
  [A] The eagerness to be accepted
  [B] The impulse to influence others
  [C] The readiness to be influenced
  [D] The inclination to rely on others
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 14:43:59 | 显示全部楼层

                          Text 4
  Bankers have been blaming themselves for their troubles in public. Behind
the scenes, they have been taking aim at someone else: the accounting
standard-setters. Their rules, moan the banks, have forced them to report
enormous losses, and it's just not fair. These rules say they must value some
assets at the price a third party would pay, not the price managers and
regulators would like them to fetch.
  Unfortunately, banks' lobbying now seems to be working. The details may be
unknowable, but the independence of standard-setters, essential to the proper
functioning of capital markets, is being compromised. And, unless banks carry
toxic assets at prices that attract buyers, reviving the banking system will be
difficult.
  After a bruising encounter with Congress, America's Financial Accounting
Standards Board (FASB) rushed through rule changes. These gave banks more
freedom to use models to value illiquid assets and more flexibility in
recognizing losses on long-term assets in their income statement. Bob Herz, the
FASB's chairman, cried out against those who "question our motives." Yet bank
shares rose and the changes enhance what one lobby group politely calls "the use
of judgment by management."
  European ministers instantly demanded that the International Accounting
Standards Board (IASB) do likewise. The IASB says it does not want to act
without overall planning, but the pressure to fold when it completes it
reconstruction of rules later this year is strong. Charlie McCreevy, a European
commissioner, warned the IASB that it did "not live in a political vacuum" but
"in the real word" and that Europe could yet develop different rules.
  It was banks that were on the wrong planet, with accounts that vastly
overvalued assets. Today they argue that market prices overstate losses, because
they largely reflect the temporary illiquidity of markets, not the likely extent
of bad debts. The truth will not be known for years. But bank's shares trade
below their book value, suggesting that investors are skeptical. And dead
markets partly reflect the paralysis of banks which will not sell assets for
fear of booking losses, yet are reluctant to buy all those supposed
bargains.
  To get the system working again, losses must be recognized and dealt with.
America's new plan to buy up toxic assets will not work unless banks mark assets
to levels which buyers find attractive. Successful markets require independent
and even combative standard-setters. The FASB and IASB have been exactly that,
cleaning up rules on stock options and pensions, for example, against hostility
from special interests. But by giving in to critics now they are inviting
pressure to make more concessions.
  36. Bankers complained that they were forced to
  [A] follow unfavorable asset evaluation rules
  [B] collect payments from third parties
  [C] cooperate with the price managers
  [D] reevaluate some of their assets.
  37. According to the author , the rule changes of the FASB may result
in
  [A] the diminishing role of management
  [B] the revival of the banking system
  [C] the banks' long-term asset losses
  [D] the weakening of its independence
  38. According to Paragraph 4, McCreevy objects to the IASB's attempt to
  [A] keep away from political influences.
  [B] evade the pressure from their peers.
  [C] act on their own in rule-setting.
  [D] take gradual measures in reform.
  39. The author thinks the banks were "on the wrong planet" in that they
  [A] misinterpreted market price indicators
  [B] exaggerated the real value of their assets
  [C] neglected the likely existence of bad debts.
  [D] denied booking losses in their sale of assets.
  40. The author's attitude towards standard-setters is one of
  [A] satisfaction.
  [B] skepticism.
  [C] objectiveness
  [D] sympathy
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
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                          Part B
  Directions:
  For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable paragraphs from the list A-G
and fill them into the numbered boxes to form a coherent text. Paragraph E has
been correctly placed. There is one paragraph which does not fit in with the
text. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1. (10 points)
  [A] The first and more important is the consumer's growing preference for
eating out; the consumption of food and drink in places other than homes has
risen from about 32 percent of total consumption in 1995 to 35 percent in 2000
and is expected to approach 38 percent by 2005. This development is boosting
wholesale demand from the food service segment by 4 to 5 percent a year across
Europe, compared with growth in retail demand of 1 to 2 percent. Meanwhile, as
the recession is looming large, people are getting anxious. They tend to keep a
tighter hold on their purse and consider eating at home a realistic
alternative.
  [B] Retail sales of food and drink in Europe's largest markets are at a
standstill, leaving European grocery retailers hungry for opportunities to grow.
Most leading retailers have already tried e-commerce, with limited success, and
expansion abroad. But almost all have ignored the big, profitable opportunity in
their own backyard: the wholesale food and drink trade, which appears to be just
the kind of market retailers need.
  [C] Will such variations bring about a change in the overall structure of
the food and drink market? Definitely not. The functioning of the market is
based on flexible trends dominated by potential buyers. In other words, it is up
to the buyer, rather than the seller, to decide what to buy .At any rate, this
change will ultimately be acclaimed by an ever-growing number of both domestic
and international consumers, regardless of how long the current consumer pattern
will take hold.
  [D] All in all, this clearly seems to be a market in which big retailers
could profitably apply their scale, existing infrastructure and proven skills in
the management of product ranges, logistics, and marketing intelligence.
Retailers that master the intricacies of wholesaling in Europe may well expect
to rake in substantial profits thereby. At least, that is how it looks as a
whole. Closer inspection reveals important differences among the biggest
national markets, especially in their customer segments and wholesale
structures, as well as the competitive dynamics of individual food and drink
categories. Big retailers must understand these differences before they can
identify the segments of European wholesaling in which their particular
abilities might unseat smaller but entrenched competitors. New skills and
unfamiliar business models are needed too.
  [E] Despite variations in detail, wholesale markets in the countries that
have been closely examined—France, Germany, Italy, and Spain—are made out of the
same building blocks. Demand comes mainly from two sources: independent
mom-and-pop grocery stores which, unlike large retail chains, are two small to
buy straight from producers, and food service operators that cater to consumers
when they don't eat at home. Such food service operators range from snack
machines to large institutional catering ventures, but most of these businesses
are known in the trade as "horeca": hotels, restaurants, and cafes. Overall,
Europe's wholesale market for food and drink is growing at the same sluggish
pace as the retail market, but the figures, when added together, mask two
opposing trends.
  [F] For example, wholesale food and drink sales come to $268 billion in
France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom in 2000—more than 40
percent of retail sales. Moreover, average overall margins are higher in
wholesale than in retail; wholesale demand from the food service sector is
growing quickly as more Europeans eat out more often; and changes in the
competitive dynamics of this fragmented industry are at last making it feasible
for wholesalers to consolidate.
  [G] However, none of these requirements should deter large retailers (and
even some large good producers and existing wholesalers) from trying their hand,
for those that master the intricacies of wholesaling in Europe stand to reap
considerable gains.
  41→42→43→44→E→45
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
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                          Part C
  Directions:
  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined
segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written carefully on ANSWER
SHEET 2. (10 points)
  One basic weakness in a conservation system based wholly on economic
motives is that most members of the land community have no economic value. Yet
these creatures are members of the biotic community and, if its stability
depends on its integrity, they are entitled to continuance.
  When one of these noneconomic categories is threatened and, if we happen to
love it .We invert excuses to give it economic importance. At the beginning of
century songbirds were supposed to be disappearing. (46) 《Scientists jumped to
the rescue with some distinctly shaky evidence to the effect that insects would
eat us up if birds failed to control them.》 the evidence had to be economic in
order to be valid.
  It is painful to read these round about accounts today. We have no land
ethic yet, (47) 《but we have at least drawn near the point of admitting that
birds should continue as a matter of intrinsic right, regardless of the presence
or absence of economic advantage to us.》
  A parallel situation exists in respect of predatory mammals and fish-eating
birds. (48) 《Time was when biologists somewhat over worded the evidence that
these creatures preserve the health of game by killing the physically weak, or
that they prey only on "worthless" species.》
  Some species of tree have been read out of the party by economics-minded
foresters because they grow too slowly, or have too low a sale vale to pay as
timber crops. (49) 《In Europe, where forestry is ecologically more advanced, the
non-commercial tree species are recognized as members of native forest
community, to be preserved as such, within reason.》
  To sum up: a system of conservation based solely on economic self-interest
is hopelessly lopsided. (50)《 It tends to ignore, and thus eventually to
eliminate, many elements in the land community that lack commercial value, but
that are essential to its healthy functioning.》 It assumes, falsely, I think,
that the economic parts of the biotic clock will function without the uneconomic
parts.
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
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                          Section Ⅲ Writing
  Part A
  51. Directions:
  You are supposed to write for the postgraduate association a notice to
recruit volunteers for an international conference on globalization, you should
conclude the basic qualification of applicant and the other information you
think relative.
  You should write about 100 words. Do not sign your own name at the end of
the letter. Use "postgraduate association" instead.
  Part B
  52. Directions:
  Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your
essay, you should
  1) describe the drawing briefly,
  2) explain its intended meaning, and then
  3) give your comments.
  You should write neatly on ANSHWER SHEET 2. (20 points)

9013141447686524333.png

9013141447686524333.png

                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
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                          2010英语真题参考答案
  一、完型填空
  1.A 2.B 3.C 4.B 5.C 6. B 7.D 8.A 9.C 10.D
  11.C 12.A 13.A 14.D 15.B 16.A 17.D 18.C 19.B 20.D
  二、阅读理解
  Text2 CDCBD
  Text3 BDACC
  Text4 AACCD
  三、新题型
  41.B 42.F 43.D 44.G 45.A
  四、翻译
  46.科学家们贸然拿出一些看似站不住脚的证据来补救,其大意是:鸟类不能控制害虫的话,害虫就会把我们人类吃掉。
  47.但是至少我们几乎承认了这样一种观点,那就是不管鸟类的生存对我们是否有经济利益,它们都有与生俱来的生存权利。
  48.曾几何时,生物学家们总是重申这样的事实:这些生物通过捕食弱小的生物来维系健康的生物链,或者说它们只不过是在捕食无价值的物种。
  49.在欧洲,生态林业较为发达,那些无商业价值的树种被视为天然森林群落的成员,应该得到合理保护。
  50.这种体系通常忽视并最终导致很多陆地上物种的灭绝,这些物种往往是没有商业价值但却对陆地生态系统的健康运行至关重要。
  五、Writing
  小作文
  An Announcement
  Jan. 9, 2010
  International Conference on Globalization, from March 3rd to 10th, will be
held at Tsinghua University. We, the Postgraduates’ Association, are entitled to
organize this conference. Thus, we are badly in need of volunteers to assist us
in organizing the relevant affairs, including reception, distribution of
documents, technical support, etc。
  Students who have previous experience as volunteers are preferred. Basic
knowledge in computer, fluent oral English and an amicable personality are some
of the qualities we desire. Volunteers shall be available for at least 3 days
without absence during the conference。
  If you are interested and willing to have a whole new experience in this
semester, please do not hesitate to send your resume to liming@hotmail.com
before Jan. 20th. Your applications are welcome。
  Postgraduates’ Association
  大作文
  As is vividly betrayed in the drawing above, a hotpot is boiling with
various forms of both domestic and alien cultures, which could be categorized as
literature, moral values and performing arts. What is indicated in the drawing
does reflect a fact and is most thought-provoking。
  The connotation of the drawing can be interpreted as following. China
launched Reform and Opening-up in 1978, which has promoted the rapid growth of
national economy. The development of economy has brought about the great changes
of culture, especially the traditional culture. At present, Chinese and Western
cultures conflict with each other but also merge into a unique form to a certain
degree. In the highly-integrated world today, no country is an isolated island.
Every nation is faced with miscellaneous alien culture. China needs to
assimilate a good deal of foreign progressive culture。
  As far as I am concerned, some necessary measures should be taken. On one
hand, more efforts must be made to popularize cultures worldwide. On the other
hand, a nationwide education campaign should be launched among people,
especially the young, so as to cultivate an appropriate sense of cultural
concept. Only in these ways can we make greater contributions to the world
cultural heritage。
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业
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