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2019考研英语语法九大代词详解:不定代词

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发表于 2018-11-17 12:58:14 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  学好英语,语法是一定要熟练掌握的。冲刺阶段,不管是阅读翻译还是写作都要把握好语法句式。新东方网给大家详解9考研英语九大代词语法,我们一起来巩固巩固:
          不定代词
          (一)both,all
          1. both用于两者,all用于三者及三者以上,其后接名词复数形式,谓语动词用复数,在句中可作主语、宾语、定语和同位语。
          例句: Similar elements in the prehistoric remains from both areas suggest
that Indians and their neighbors had maintained distant but real connections
even before 1,500 BC.
          分析: 该句是复合句,suggest是主句的谓语动词,that Indians and their neighbors...是一个宾语从句。
          译文: 来自两个地区的史前遗迹中的类似成分表明: 印度人和他们的邻居甚至在公元前1500年前就维持着遥远但真实的联系。
          例句: In the early industrialized countries of Europe the process of
industrialization — with all the far reaching changes in social patterns that
followed — was spread over nearly a century, whereas nowadays a developing
nation may undergo the same process in a decade or so. (2000年第74题)
          分析: 该句是并列复合句,whereas连接两个并列分句,其中前一个分句的主句部分为the process of industrialization
was spread over nearly a century,而介词短语with...为主语补足语,定语从句that
followed修饰changes。
          译文:
在早先实现工业化的欧洲国家中,其工业化进程以及随之而来的对社会结构有深远影响的变革延续了将近一个世纪,而现如今,一个发展中国家只用十年左右的时间就可以经历同样的过程。
          2. all作代词时,其后谓语动词可以是单数也可以是复数。
          例句: All the information we have collected in relation to that case adds up
to very little.
          分析: 该句是复合句,其中主干部分是All the information...adds up to very little,we have
collected in relation to that case 是修饰the information的定语从句。
          译文: 我们搜集到的与那件事有关的所有信息都是没有意义的。
          例句: All but he and I are going to attend the meeting.
          译文: 除了我和他之外,所有人都去开会了。
          3. both,all,every和not连用时表示部分否定。
          例句:But not all parts of the brain are equally involved; the limbic system
(the “emotional brain” ) is especially active, while the prefrontal cortex (the
center of intellect and reasoning) is relatively quiet. (选自2005年Text 3)
          分析: 该句是由分号及while连接的并列句,分号相当于连词and,not all...表示部分否定。
          译文: 但并不是大脑的所有部分都参与活动,控制情绪的大脑部位异常活跃,然而控制智力和推理能力的前额皮质却相对平静。
          例句: Not everyone sees that process in perspective. (选自2002年Use of
English)
          分析: 该句是简单句。
          译文: 不是每个人都能正确看待这个过程。
          (二)either, neither, any, each, none, every, some
          1. either和neither是一对反义词,表示“两者中任何一个都(不)”,作名词或形容词。
          用法为:
          either (neither) of the+复数名词+动词单数
          either (neither)+单数名词+动词单数
          如:Either/Neither of these stories (either/neither story) he told us is as
attractive and instructive as that one.
          例句: Neither kind of sleep is at all wellunderstood, but REM (rapid eye
movements) sleep is assumed to serve some restorative function of the brain.
          分析: 该句是并列句。
          译文: 人们对这两种睡眠都没有完全了解,但认为快速眼动睡眠有使大脑恢复的功能。
          2. either指两者中的任何一个,仅限两者,而each用于两者以上;either和both可互换使用,但both强调整体。
          例句: The relationship between Latin American music and black music in the
United States is evident in the unaccented beats that are common to
either/both.
          分析: 该句是复合句,定语从句that are common to either/both修饰beats。
          译文: 拉丁美洲音乐同美国黑人音乐的关系明显地表现在这两种音乐各自存在着无重音节拍这一共同点上。
          例句: We also expect each place to be appropriate to its use.
          分析: 该句是简单句。
          译文: 我们也希望每个地方都恰如其分。
          3. any和none是一对反义词,表示“三者或三者以上中的任何一个都(不)”,其后谓语动词 的单复数参看例句。
          例句: Although Professor Green's lectures usually run over the fifty minute
period, none of his students ever object(s) as they find his lectures both
informative and interesting.
          分析: 该句是复合句。
          译文: 虽然格林教授的课通常超过规定的50分钟,但他的学生从无一人表示反对,因为他们发现格林的课既富有知识性又有趣。
          例句: If any man here does not agree with me, he should put forward his own
plan of improving the living conditions of these people.
          分析: 该句是复合句。
          译文: 如果在座的有人不赞成我的观点,那么他就应该提出他自己的改善这些人生活条件的方案。
          4.
any和some的主要区别在于any用于否定句、条件句和疑问句;some用于肯定句,表示期待对方的肯定答复或以问句形式向对方提出要求或邀请。
          例句: He has failed me so many times that I no longer place any reliance on
what he promises. (1997年第23题)
          分析: 该句是复合句。
          译文: 他多次辜负了我的期望,以至于我不再相信他作出的任何承诺。
          例句: The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others
is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. (选自2008年Use of
English)
          分析: 该句是复合句,主干部分是The idea is one of those hypotheses。that some groups of
people may be more intelligent than others是idea的同位语从句,that dare not speak its
name是hypotheses的定语从句。
          译文: 认为某些群体的智商要高于其他群体是一个无人敢说出来的假想。
          5. every只能用作形容词,everyone指人,而every one既可以指物也可以指人。
          例句: Without telephone it would be impossible to carry on the functions of
practically every business operation in the whole country. (1998年第32题)
          分析: 该句是简单句,本句隐含了一个与现在情况相反的虚拟语气,Without telephone相 当于if there were no
telephone。
          译文: 如果没有电话,全国几乎所有的商业运作都不可能正常进行。
          例句: There is an incorrect assumption among scientists and medical people
that everyone agrees on what constitutes a benefit to an individual.
          分析: 该句是复合句,that everyone agrees on...作assumption的同位语从句,what constitutes a
benefit to an individual作介词on的宾语。
          译文: 科学家和医务人员普遍持有一种不正确的假设,即:人们在什么构成了个人利益问题上意见一致。
          (三)one,the other和another
          1. 两者中一个用one表示,另一个用the other表示,不定数目中的另一个用another表示。
          例句: However, when two monkeys were placed in separate but adjoining
chambers, so that each could observe what the other was getting in return for
its rock, their behavior became markedly different. (选自2005年Text 1)
          分析: 该句是复合句,主句部分为their behavior became markedly different。 when引
导的时间状语从句中又插入了so that引导的目的状语从句,从句中what the other...作observe的宾语。
          译文: 但是当两只猴子被放在隔开但相邻的两个房间中,而且每只猴子还能看到对方用岩石交换了什么物品之后,他们的行为就发生了巨大变化。
          例句: We had a party last month, and it was a lot of fun, so let's have
another one this month.
          分析: 该句是并列句。
          译文: 上个月我们举行了一场晚会,很有意思。因此,我们这个月再举行一场类似的晚会吧。
          2. 表示三者并对三者加以说明。
          表达方法如下:
          one...another...and the other
          one...a second...and the third
          例句: I have three sisters, one is a nurse, another (a second) is a teacher,
and the other (and the third) is a doctor.
          注: 表示四者并对四者都加以说明的表达方式是:one...another...a third...and the fourth (the
other)...。
          3. One作代词时,前用形容词或the,this,that,which,any,some,each,every等来修饰,另有one of
the+复数名词+单数动词。
          例句: That means a higher proportion of what is in the sea is being caught,
so the real difference between present and past is likely to be worse than the
one recorded by changes in catch sizes. (选自2006年Text 3)
          分析: 该句是复合句,means后的宾语从句省略了连接代词that,what is in the sea作介词
of的宾语,so引导的另一个分句中的the one代替前面的名词difference,分词短语recorded by...作后置定语修饰the one。
          译文: 这意味着更高比例的海洋物种正在被捕捞,因此现在和过去的真正差异可能比根据渔获量的变化所记录的更糟糕。
          例句: One of the responsibilities of the Coast Guard is to make sure that all
ships dutifully follow traffic rules in busy harbors. (2001年第13题)
          分析: 该句是复合句,从句that all ships...harbors作make sure的宾语。
          译文: 海岸警卫队的责任之一就是确保所有船只在繁忙的港口严格遵守航运规则。
          注意: that和one都可用来代表句子前面部分中的名词以避免重复: one指代可数名词,
为不确定指代,其复数形式为ones;that指代可数和不可数名词,为确定指代,其复数形式为those。
          例句: No bread eaten by man is so sweet as that earned by his own labor.
          分析: 该句是简单句,其中that代替前面的bread,分词短语earned by his own labor作定语修饰that。
          译文: 什么面包也不如自己劳动挣得的面包香。
          例句: Julia tried to find a good book on physics, but the bookstore she went
to yesterday did not have one.
          分析: 该句是并列句,其中第二个分句是一个复合句,she went to yesterday是修饰the bookstore的定语从句。
          译文: 朱丽亚想找一本物理学方面的好书,但昨天她去的那家书店没有。
          4. another后接单数名词,表示的意思是“另一个,又一个(one more);另外的,别的(some other);不同的(a
different)”。
          例句: Her mother will be back in another moment, and we have to wait for
her.
          分析: 本句是以and连接的并列句。
          译文: 她妈妈再过一会儿就回来,我们还是等等她吧。
          例句: We will visit the History Museum another day.
          译文: 我们改天参观历史博物馆。
          例句: He is planning another tour abroad, yet his passport will expire at the
end of this month. (1998年第34题)
          分析: 该句是由yet连接的并列句。
          译文: 他正计划再到国外去旅游,但是他的护照这个月底就到期了。
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发表于 2018-11-17 14:17:31 | 显示全部楼层

          5. other通常接复数名词,在any other,every other, no other,some other,the other,one
other后,名词也可用单数形式。
          例句: As far as I am concerned, his politics are rather conservative compared
with other politicians'. (1997年第19题)
          分析: 该句是简单句,其中As far as I am concerned为插入语,other politicians相当于other
politicians politics,分词短语compared with other
politicians在句中作状语表示时间或条件,相当于when/if his politics are compared with other
politicians'。
          译文: 依我看,与其他政治家的政治观点相比,他的观点更加保守。
          例句: No other book has had a greater influence on my life.
          译文: 任何书对我一生的影响都没有这本书大。
          例句: Wilson found there was only one other guest besides himself.
          译文: 威尔逊发现除了他自己外只有一个客人。
          注意: other与数目连用时其位置如下:
          基数词+ other+复数名词;
          the other+基数词+复数名词或the+基数词+other+复数名词。
          (四)few,a few; little,a little
          few和a few修饰可数名词;little和a little修饰不可数名词;a few和a
little具有肯定含义;few和little具有否定含义;the few和the little表示肯定含义。
          例句: A few premiers are suspicious of any federal provincial deal
making.(选自2005年Part B)
          分析: 该句是简单句。
          译文: 一些省督们对由联邦政府联合各省进行谈判的做法心存怀疑。
          例句: The roles expected of old people in such a setting give too few
psychological satisfactions for normal happiness. (2000年第7题)
          分析: 该句是简单句,其中分词短语expected of old people在句中作定语修饰the roles。
          译文: 在此情况下,对老年人角色的期望使得他们几乎无法得到心理上的满足,也就无法享受正常的幸福生活。
          例句: Living in the central Australian desert has its problems, of which
obtaining water is not the least.
          分析: 该句是复合句,of which obtaining water is...是一个非限制性定语从句修饰 problems,the
least是the little的最高级表示肯定意义。
          译文: 居住在澳大利亚沙漠中心有其自身的问题,其中,获取水是很严峻的问题。
          例句: They may teach very well, and more than earn their salaries, but most
of them make little or no independent reflections on human problems which
involve moral judgment. (2006年第50题)
          分析: 该句是并列复合句,定语从句which involve moral judgment修饰problems,but前后是两个并列句。
          译文: 他们可以教得很好,而且不仅仅是为了挣薪水,但他们大多数人却很少或没有对需要进行道德判断的关于人的问题讲行独立思考。
          (五)most
          most表示大多数、大部分或最大数量、最大程度等,作代词、名词、形容词和副词。
          例句:It's hard to imagine that many people are dumb enough to want children
just because Reese and Angelina make it look so glamorous: most adults
understand that a baby is not a haircut. (选自2011年Text 4)
          分析:该句是复合句。在主句中,it是形式主语,真正的主语是to imagine that many people are dumb enough to
want children;在原因状语从句中,it代表前面提到的to want children;冒号后的内容是对前面内容的解释。
          译文:很难想象,仅仅因为里斯和安吉丽娜使“生孩子”看起来颇具魅力,很多人就愚蠢地跟风效仿:大多数成年人都明白抚养孩子并不像理发那样简单。
          例句: Most newspapers, while devoting the major part of their space to recent
events, usually manage to find room on the inside pages for articles on some
interesting topics. (2000年第17题)
          分析: 该句是复合句,其中主句为Most newspapers usually manage to find room on the inside
pages...topics。从句while后的完整形式应为while they are devoting the major part of their
space to recent events。
          译文: 大多数报纸将主要版面用来报道近期发生的事件,但通常也会在内页留出空间刊登一些趣闻。
          例句: Most often the reason for this is that the mother is insensitive to the
signals of the infant, whose brain is programmed to learn language rapidly.
          分析: 该句是复合句,that the mother is insensitive to the signals of the
infant在句中充当表语从句,定语从句whose brain is...rapidly修饰the infant。
          译文: 其原因往往是母亲对大脑已做好快速学习语言准备的婴儿所发出的信号不敏感。
          1. 单独使用时,most前无冠词。
          例句: Some of the people stayed behind, but most went.
          分析: most=most people,动词用复数。
          2. most后带有限制性定语从句时,前加the。
          例句: The most this hall can seat is 1,000.
          分析: 这是一个复合句,this hall can seat这个定语从句修饰the most。seat是动词,意为“为……提供座位”。
          译文: 这个大厅最多能容纳一千人。
          3. most of the+复数名词表示“大多数……”;most of+形容词性物主代词+单数名词表示“大部分……”。
          例句: Mr.Pollard has visited most of the countries in Europe.
          译文: 波勒德先生已经访问了欧洲大多数国家。
          例句: Most of her book deals with problems in political economy.
          译文: 她的书大部分都是论述政治经济方面的问题的。
          例句: Moreover, most of the changes that companies make are intended to keep
them profitable, and this need not always mean increasing productivity:
switching to new markets or improving quality can matter just as much.
(选自1998年Text 2)
          分析: 该句是并列复合句,and前一分句中that companies make是一定语从句修饰the
changes,后一分句中this指代前面句子的所有内容,冒号后的内容作解释。
          译文: 此外,公司改革的目的大部分是为了盈利,这种需求并不一定总是能够提高生产率: 转入新的市场或改善产品质量也能获得同样的效果。
          4.
most作副词时构成形容词或副词的最高级;在通俗英语中most=very,修饰形容词或副词,most与mostly的区别在于后者作“大部分”讲(=for the
most part)。
          例句: The Eskimo is perhaps one of the most trusting and considerate of all
Indians but seems to be indifferent to the welfare of his animals.
(2001年第14题)
          分析: 该句是简单句,is与seems to是两个并列谓语。
          译文: 爱斯基摩人可能是所有印第安人中最信任别人也最体贴他人的人,然而他们对自己的动物的福利却好像漠不关心。
          例句: What Mr.Jelly said is mostly (=for the most part) correct.
          译文: 杰勒先生说的话大部分是正确的。
          5. most+名词,表示泛指;most of the+名词,表示特指。
          例句: Most Chinese like fast food.(泛指)
          Most of the people in this district are fond of CCTV5.(特指)
          译文:这一个区里的大部分人都喜欢看中央五台。
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