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2019考研英语语法解析:动词

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发表于 2018-5-3 19:02:21 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
学习语法和学习语言是相辅相成的,英语水平要提升,语法知识点必须要熟练掌握。基础复习阶段,对于遇到的相关语法一定要弄懂弄会。新东方在线分解各个语法知识点,帮助大家一一攻克。下面是动词语法知识点解析:
    2019考研英语语法解析:动词
   
     动词是表示动作或状态的词,根据其意义和作用,动词可分为实义动词、系动词、情态动词和助动词。动词涉及的内容很多,本书仅就研究生考试中常涉及的动词时态、时态一致以及部分情态动词作深入讲解。
      一、时态(Tense)
    时态是表示动作发生的时间和表现方式的一种动词形式,英语动词的时态有16种,但在研究生考试以及其他考试中常考的时态只有几种。不管何种时态,所包含的主要内容都是相同的,即时态的构成以及用法。本书着重讲解重要时态的用法。
        (一)一般现在时(Simple Present Tense)
    1. 表示客观真理或科学事实。
    例句: The moon has a mass that is nearly one hundred times less than that of the earth;in consequence, the force of gravity at the moons surface is only onesixth of that at the earths surface.
    分析: 该句是复合句,定语从句that is nearly...less than that of the earth修饰a mass;in consequence后是另一个并列句。
    译文: 月球的质量差不多是地球质量的1/100,因此月球表面的引力只有地球表面引力的1/6。
    例句: One difficulty in translation lies in obtaining a concept match. By this is meant that a concept in one language is lost or changed in meaning in translation. (2001年第8题)
    分析: 该句由两个句子构成,前一个是简单句,后一个句子是复合句;that后是一宾语从句。
    译文: 翻译中的一个难点在于找到一个相对应的概念。这就是说,在翻译过程中一种语言的概念会丢失或发生意义上的改变。
    2. 表示现在反复发生或习惯性的动作以及存在的状态,常与always,often,usually, sometimes, once a week,seldom,never等时间状语连用。
    例句: Its usually the case that people seldom behave in a rational way when in a furious state.
    分析: 该句是复合句,从句that people seldom behave in a rational way是the case的同位语;when后省略了people are。
    译文: 人们在暴怒时通常会丧失理智。
    例句: Physicians frustrated by their inability to cure the disease and fearing loss of hope in the patient too often offer aggressive treatment far beyond what is scientifically justified. (选自2003年Text 4)
    分析: 该句是复合句,其中主干部分为physicians too often offer aggressive treatment...。分词短语frustrated by their inability to cure the disease and fearing loss of hope in the patient作physicians的后置定语;从句what is scientifically justified作介词beyond 的宾语。
    译文: 医生由于不能够治愈疾病,同时又担心病人失去希望,因而常常采用极端大胆的治疗方法,这些方法远远超过了科学所能认同的界限。
    3. 表示按计划进行的将来动作,常用come,arrive,catch,fly,leave,go,start等词。
    例句: When he comes, please inform him of all that I have just told you.
    分析: 该句是复合句。该复合句中包含when引导的时间状语从句和that引导的定语从句。
    译文: 他来时,请转告他我告诉你的一切。
    4. 用在时间或条件状语从句中表示将来的动作。
    例句: He will come the moment he finishes his work.
    分析: 该句中的the moment为连词,意为“一……就”,相当于as soon as。
    译文:他一结束工作就会来。
    例句: If it is fine tomorrow, well go shopping.
    译文: 如果明天天气好的话,我们将去逛商场。
    5. 表示主语的能力、性格、个性等。
    例句: As an industry, biotechnology stands to rival electronics in dollar volume and perhaps surpass it in social impact by 2020. (2001年第25题)
    分析: 该句是简单句,surpass前省略了不定式to。
    译文: 作为一门产业,生物技术在营业额上可以与电子业相媲美,并且到了2020年还有可能在社会影响上超过它。
    例句: The director treats his staff as equals.
    译文: 主任对其下属一视同仁。
    6. 表示格言或警句。
    例句: A fence needs the support of three stakes; an able fellow needs the help of three other people.
    译文: 一个篱笆三个桩,一个好汉三个帮。
    例句: Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtle; natural philosophy deep; moral grave;logic and rhetoric able to contend.
    译文: 读史使人明智,读诗使人灵秀,数学使人周密,科学使人深刻,伦理使人庄重,逻辑修辞之学使人善辩。
   
                    
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发表于 2018-5-3 20:41:00 | 显示全部楼层
  (二)现在完成时(Present Perfect Tense)
    1. 已完成用法: 表示动作在过去某一不明确的时间已完成,强调对现在的影响,这一用法常不带时间状语或可与不明确的时间状语连用,如: already,yet,ever,just,never。
    例句: I have excluded him because, while his accomplishments may contribute to the solution of moral problems, he has not been charged with the task of approaching any but the factual aspects of those problems. (2006年第48题)
    分析: 该句是复合句。在because引导的原因状语从句中又加入了由while引导的让步状语从句。
    译文: 我之所以将他(普通科学家)排除在外,是因为尽管他的成果可能有助于解决道德问题,但他承担的任务只不过是研究这些问题的事实方面。
    例句:The same dramatic technological changes that have provided marketers with more (and more diverse) communications choices have also increased the risk that passionate consumers will voice their opinions in quicker, more visible, and much more damaging ways. (选自2011年Text 3)
    分析:该句是复合句。主句的主干部分是The same dramatic technological changes have also increased the risk。that have provided marketers with more (and more diverse) communications choices是一个定语从句,修饰changes;that passionate consumers will voice their opinions in quicker,more visible, and much more damaging ways是risk的同位语从句,介词短语in quicker, more visible, and much more damaging ways在该同位语从句中作状语,表示方式,修饰谓语动词voice。
    译文:同样是这些重大的技术变革,在给营销商带来更多的(以及更多样化的)传播渠道选择的同时,也增加了风险,那就是热情洋溢的消费者将会以更快、更明显和更具破坏性的方式表达他们的观点。
    2. 未完成用法: 表示动作从过去某时开始持续到现在,还有可能持续下去,强调持续性,这一用法要带表示一段时间的状语,如: recently, these days, for 3 years, since 2000, over the past等。
    例句: For example, it has long been known that total sleep deprivation is 100 percent fatal to rats, yet, upon examination of the dead bodies, the animals look completely normal.
    分析: 该句是复合句。
    译文: 比如,人们早已知道,完全剥夺其睡眠对老鼠而言绝对是致命的。然而,在检验动物尸体时,那些动物看起来是完全正常的。
    例句: Since the dawn of human ingenuity, people have devised ever more cunning tools to cope with work that is dangerous, boring, burdensome, or just plain nasty. (选自2002年Text 2)
    分析: 该句是复合句。句中定语从句that is dangerous,boring,burdensome...修饰work, since...在句中作状语。
    译文: 自从人类具有了独创性以来,人们就发明了愈加精巧的工具来处理那些危险、无聊、麻烦或者仅仅是令人讨厌的工作。
    3. 现在完成时用于时间或条件状语从句中表示将来完成的动作。
    例句: Ill help you when I have finished my work. I will return the book if I have finished it.
    4. 下列表达方式后要用现在完成时。
    This (That/It) is the first (second...)...
    This (That/It) is the best (finest/worst/most interesting...)...
    例句: This is the first time that China has had such negotiations with a G7 member, the official said.
    译文: 该官员说,这是中国与七国集团成员首次进行这样的谈判。
    例句: This is the first time that he has felt really relaxed for months.
    译文: 几个月来他第一次真正感到放松。
    注意: 如果主句动词表示过去时间,从句常用过去完成时;如果主句动词表示将来时间,从句仍使用现在完成时。
    例句: It was the best picture that she had seen.
    It will be the best picture that she has seen.
    5. 有些时间状语常用于现在完成时态。
    如:
    up till nowso farat (for) the past (last) years
    in recent yearsup to present
    例句: For the past several years, the Sunday Newspaper supplement Parade has featured a column called“Ask Marilyn”. (选自2007年Text 2)
    分析: 该句是简单句,其中called“Ask Marilyn”作后置定语,修饰a column。
    译文: 在过去的几年里,《展示杂志》周日增刊上出现了一个叫做“向玛瑞林提问”的特色专栏。
   
                    
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发表于 2018-5-3 21:23:30 | 显示全部楼层
  (三)过去完成时(Past Perfect Tense)
    1. 表示过去某时刻以前发生和完成的动作,即过去的过去,常用于主从复合句中。
    例句: She felt suitably humble just as she had when he had first taken a good look at her city self,hair waved and golden,nails red and pointed. (2001年第4题)
    分析: 该句是复合句。when引导的时间状语从句用的是过去完成时,所以主句只能用过去的时态;由于主句用的是一般过去时felt,那么其时间状语应用过去完成时,即 as后的完整形式应是as she had felt。
    译文: 她举止谦逊、得体,就像他当初见到她时她所表现的那样: 金黄色的卷发,尖尖的红指甲。
    例句: Bolivar had received aid from Haiti and had promised in return to abolish slavery in the areas he liberated. (选自2007年Use of English)
    分析: 该句是复合句。he liberated是修饰the areas的定语,在从句前省略了作宾语的关系 代词which或that。
    译文: 玻利瓦尔接受过海地的援助,作为同报,他承诺在解放的地区废除奴隶制。
    2. 用于hardly...when, scarcely...when(before), no sooner...than(刚一……就)句型中。当hardly,scarcely,no sooner置于句首时,句子结构要倒装。
    例句: No sooner had we reached the top of the hill than we all sat down to rest.
    Hardly had the teacher entered the classroom when the pupils were in absolute silence. (be in absolute silence可译为“鸦雀无声”)
    3. 用于虚拟语气条件句中,表示与过去事实相反的假设。
    例句: I would have gone to visit him in the hospital had it been at all possible, but I was fully occupied the whole of last week. (1997年第4题)
    分析: 该句是并列复合句。had it been at all possible是省略了if的倒装句,完整形式应为 if it had been...;本句but前是一个非真实条件句,表示与过去事实相反的假设。
    译文: 如果有一点可能的话,我都会到医院去看望他,但我上个礼拜整个一周都没有空。
    4.动词hope,expect,think,intend,want,mean,suppose,plan,believe等用于过去完成 时,表示未实现的希望、意图、计划等。
    例句: Mr. Pelkmans is not among those who had believed that the ECs single market is threatened by the doubt building over Europes continued integration.
    分析: 该句是复合句。定语从句who had believed...修饰those;that the ECs single market is threatened...作believed的宾语;分词短语building over...作定语修饰the doubt。
    译文: 有些人原以为对促进欧洲持续整合怀有的疑虑会威胁到欧共体的统一市场,佩尔克斯曼先生并不这么认为。
    注意: 当连词after指明两个过去动作的时间先后顺序时,after从句中可用过去完成时,也可用一般过去时;在连词when引导的从句中,有时过去完成时与一般过去时可以互换使用;当before用作连词引导从句时,主句中过去完成时与一般过去时也可互换使用。
    例句: Julia left the room after she had turned off (turned off) the light.
    When the teacher had left (left) the room, the pupils started talking.
    Before he entered college, he had served (served) in the army.
   
                    
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发表于 2018-5-3 22:29:26 | 显示全部楼层
    (四)一般将来时(Simple Future Tense)
    一般将来时表示将来的动作或状态,其形式和用法如下所述。
    1. will/shall+动词,表示单纯的将来含义。
    例句: Some day software will translate both written and spoken language so well that the need for any common second language could decline. (2001年第23题)
    分析: 该句是复合句。written and spoken作定语修饰language;that后是一结果状语从句。
    译文: 有朝一日,软件既能用来做文字翻译又能做口头翻译,而且能翻译得很好,以至于对任何通用的第二语言的需求都会下降。
    例句: Hilton is building its own hotel there, which you may be sure will be decorated with Hamlet Hamburger Bars, the Lear Lounge, the Banquo Banqueting Room, and so forth and will be very expensive. (选自2006年Text 2)
    分析: 该句是复合句。which引导的定语从句修饰its own hotel;从句中you may be sure是插入语,从句的主干部分为which will be decorated with...and will be very expensive。
    译文: 希尔顿正在那儿建立自己的酒店,你或许可以肯定它将配有(以莎士比亚剧中人物的名字命名的)哈姆雷特汉堡包店、李尔王休息室、班柯宴会包间等,而且价格非常昂贵。
    2. be going to+动词,表示按计划或打算在最近的将来做某事,也可表示对未来的预测。
    例句: As long as poor people, who in general are colored, are in conflict with richer people who in general are lighter skinned, there is going to be a constant racial conflict in the world. (1999年第18题)
    分析: 该句是复合句。定语从句who in general are colored和who in general are lighter skinned分别修饰poor people以及richer people;从句的主干部分为poor people are in conflict with richer people。
    译文: 一般来说,只要穷人与富人(也就是一般的有色人种和白色人种)之间有冲突,那么这个世界上的种族冲突就不会停止。
    例句: Clearly, only the biggest and most flexible television companies are going to be able to compete in such a rich and hotlycontested market. (选自2005年Part C)
    分析: 该句是简单句。
    译文: 显然,只有规模最大、应变能力最强的电视传媒集团才能够在这个精彩纷呈而又竞争 激烈的市场中生存。
    3. be to+动词,表示按计划或安排将要发生的动作或要求别人去做的事,常用来表示官方的命令、决定、禁止、许可等。
    例句:If Gilbert and the Philharmonic are to succeed,they must first change the relationship between Americas oldest orchestra and the new audience it hopes to attract. (选自2011年Text 4)
    分析:该句是复合句。其中,在主句中,定语从句it hopes to attract修饰audience。
    译文:如果吉尔伯特和纽约爱乐乐团想获得成功,他们首先必须改变美国最古老的交响乐团和其想要吸引的新一批观众间的关系。
    例句: But his primary task is not to think about the moral code, which governs his activity, any more than a businessman is expected to dedicate his energies to an exploration of rules of conduct in business. (2006年第49题)
    分析: 该句是复合句,本句主干为his primary task is not to think about...any more than...。定语从句which governs his activity修饰the moral code;其中not...any more than意为“不……也不……”。
    译文: 但是,他的首要任务并不是考虑支配自己行动的道德规范,就如同不能指望商人专注于探讨行业规范一样。
    4.be about to+动词,表示最近即将发生的动作,不接时间状语。
    例句: Marlin is a young man of independent thinking who is not about to pay compliments to his political leaders. (1999年第9题)
    分析: 该句是复合句。定语从句who is not about to pay compliments to...修饰a young man。
    译文: 马林是个有独立思考能力的年轻人,他不会恭维他的政治领导人。
    例句: His brother, who was a school teacher, was broke, his stomach ulcers were troubling him, one of his children had to have a serious operation, and his wife was about to have twins.
    分析: 该句是并列复合句,其中定语从句who was a school teacher修饰his brother。主干部分为His brother was...,his stomach ulcers were...,one of his children had to..., and his wife was about to...。
    译文: 他的哥哥是一位老师,已身无分文,并患上了胃溃疡,他的一个孩子要接受一次大手术,他的爱人将要生一对双胞胎。
    5. 位置移动动词,如: come,arrive,go,fly,catch,start,leave,travel的用法是be+现在分词,表示按计划即将发生的一个动作,常跟较近将来时间状语连用。
    例句: The Spring Festival is coming, and all the urban people are busy engaging in all kinds of preparations.
    分析: 该句是由and连接的并列句。
    译文: 春节就要到了,城里人都在忙着做各种各样的准备。
    6. 动词come,go,start,leave,arrive,return,begin常用一般现在时表示将来,表示已经预先计划安排好的或肯定发生的动作,主语常为事物名词。
    例句: By the time you arrive in London, we will have stayed in Europe for two weeks. (1994年第1题)
    分析: 该句是复合句。arrive用一般现在时表示将来。
    译文: 你到达伦敦时,我们将已经在欧洲待了两周了。
   
                    
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发表于 2018-5-3 23:30:37 | 显示全部楼层
  (五)现在进行时(Present Continuous Tense)
    1. 表示此刻正在进行或在目前限定时间内不断进行的动作。
    例句: That may change fast: lots of proposed datasecurity legislation is now doing the rounds in Washington D.C..(选自2007年Text 4)
    分析: 该句是并列句,冒号后的内容是对前面所提内容的进一步说明。
    译文: 这一切很快就会改变: 很多提议的信息安全法规正在华盛顿逐一讨论。
    例句:Its no surprise that Jennifer Seniors insightful, provocative magazine cover story, “I love My Children, I Hate My Life,” is arousing much chatter—nothing gets people talking like the suggestion that child rearing is anything less than a completely fulfilling, lifeenriching experience. (选自2011年Text 4)
    分析:该句中,破折号前是一个复合句,其中,it是形式主语,真正的主语是Jennifer Seniors insightful, provocative magazine cover story is arousing much chatter,引号中的内容与其前cover story为同位语关系;破折号后的内容是对前面陈述内容的解释,suggestion后是一个同位语从句。
    译文:詹妮佛·森尼尔见解深刻、颇具煽动性的杂志封面文章《我爱我的孩子,我讨厌我的生活》引发了热烈的议论,这不足为奇——没有什么比“育儿绝非完全是实现自我、丰富生活的体验”这样的暗示更能引发人们的讨论了。
    2. 表示现阶段正在进行的动作,而此刻并不一定在进行。
    例句: The future of this company is at stake: many of its talented employees are following into more profitable netbased businesses. (2001年第30题)
    分析: 该句是并列句,冒号后的内容是对前面内容的进一步解释。
    译文: 这家公司的未来生死未卜,它的许多有才能的雇员正流失到赚钱更多的网络行业中去。
    例句: “Data is becoming an asset which needs to be guarded as much as any other asset, ” says Haim Mendelson of Stanford Universitys business school.
    分析: 该句是复合句,定语从句which needs to be guarded as much as any other asset修饰an asset。
    译文: 斯坦福大学商学院的海姆·门德尔森说: “信息已成为一种资产,需要像其他资产一样加以保护。”
    3. 表示最近按计划或安排要进行的动作(这一用法见一般将来时用法5)。
    4. 在时间或条件状语从句中,表示将来正在进行的动作。
    例句: Take care when you are taking an exam.
    Put him up if he is still finding a dwelling place.
    注意: 表示状态、感觉或情感的动词不用于现在进行时,如: forget, know, see, notice, love, like, hate, desire, believe, look, think, mind, have, seem, sound, remain等。
    (六)将来完成时(Future Perfect Tense)和将来完成进行时(Future Perfect Continuous Tense)
    1. 表示将来某一时间以前已经完成的动作。
    例句: Its reported that by the end of this month the output of cement in the factory will have risen by about 10.
    译文:据报道,到本月底这家工厂的水泥产量将要提升10。
    例句: The conference will have lasted a full week by the time it ends.
    译文: 会议在结束前将持续整个星期。
    2. 将来完成进行时则表示一个一直持续到将来某一时间的动作,可能还要持续下去。
    例句: He pointed to the deserted house and said,“I will have been living there by the end of this year.”
    译文:他指着那座被遗弃的房子说:“今年年底以前,我会一直住在那里。”
   

                    
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发表于 2018-5-4 00:25:11 | 显示全部楼层
    (七)一般过去时(Simple Past Tense)
    1. 表示在确定的过去时间里发生的动作或状态,常和表示过去的时间状语连用,如yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 2005等。
    例句: It was within the computer age that the term“information society”began to be widely used to describe the context within which we now live. (选自2002年Use of English)
    分析: 该句是复合句。其中It was...that是强调句型;which引导的定语从句修饰the context;within是定语从句中live后的介词,即live within the context。
    译文: 正是在这个计算机时代,“信息社会”一词被广泛用来形容我们所生活的环境。
    例句: The Greeks assumed that the language structure had some connection with the process of thought, which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse the language could be. (2004年第61题)
    分析: 该句是复合句。that后是一宾语从句,作assumed的宾语;which引导的定语从句修饰前面宾语从句中提到的内容,其中又套了一个由before引导的状语从句,宾语从句how diverse the language could be作realized的宾语。
    译文: 希腊人认为,语言结构与思维过程之间存在着某种联系。这一观点在人们尚未认识到语言的千差万别以前就早已在欧洲扎下了根。
    2. 表示过去习惯性的动作或状态用used to/would+动词,前者表示今昔对比,即现在已不存在的过去的情况;而后者表示重复的行为,也可用来表示不规则的习惯。
    例句: The defining term of intelligence in humans still seems to be the IQ score,even though IQ tests are not given as often as they used to be. (选自2007年Text 2)
    分析: 该句是复合句。even though引导让步状语从句:as often as后是比较状语从句。
    译文: 虽然智商测试不再像以前那样频繁应用了,但是,界定人类智力的术语似乎仍然只是智商的得分。
    例句: When the engine would not start, the mechanic inspected all the parts to find what was at fault.
    分析: 该句是复合句,其中what was at fault在句中作find的宾语。
    译文: 当发动机启动不了时,机械师检查了所有的部件以便找出毛病。
    注意: “be used to+名词或动名词”,表示“习惯于……,对……已感到习惯”,可以指现在, 也可指过去,不能与“used to+动词原形”表示“过去常常做……(而现在不)”混淆。
    例句: During his year in the hospital, Dr.Joan was not used to treating patient this way.
    译文: 在医院那阵子,约翰医生还不习惯那样对待病人。
    例句:The rough guide to marketing success used to be that you got what you paid for. (选自2011年Text 3)
    分析:该句是复合句。介词短语to marketing success 在句中作后置定语,修饰guide;that you got what you paid for是一个表语从句,what you paid for作got的宾语。
    译文:营销成功的大致策略过去常常就是你花钱买到自己想要的东西。
    3. 用于日常对话中,可用来表示现在的动作或状态,口气上较为委婉。
    例句: I wondered whether youd attend to my sick daughter while Im away.
    分析: 该句是复合句。
    译文: 我想知道在我外出时,你能否替我照顾生病的女儿。
    考研英语系统复习
    划重点、讲难点
    你需要这样一个课程
   
    ————送给你的话————     
    Everybody can fly without wings when they hold on to their dreams. 坚持自己的梦想,即使没有翅膀也能飞翔。
                    
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