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2019考研英语语法解析:代词

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发表于 2018-5-2 20:25:23 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
学习语法和学习语言是相辅相成的,英语水平要提升,语法知识点必须要熟练掌握。基础复习阶段,对于遇到的相关语法一定要弄懂弄会。新东方在线分解各个语法知识点,帮助大家一一攻克。下面是代词语法知识点解析:
    2019考研英语语法解析:代词
      一、人称代词
      (一)人称代词的主格、宾格
    人称代词的主格在句中作主语、表语,宾格作及物动词或介词的宾语,主格和宾格不可混用。
    例句: When school was over, Jack and me went home together.
    分析: me应改为I,因为它处在主语的位置上。
    例句: Each cigarette which a person smokes does some harm, and eventually he may get a serious disease from its effect. (1996年第14题)
    分析: 该句是复合句,其中which a person smokes是修饰each cigarette的定语从句,he指代前面的a person。
    译文: 一个人吸的每一支烟都对他的身体有害,最终他将因吸烟患上一种严重的疾病。
      (二)it的用法
    1. 代替除人以外的一切生物或事物(可代替单个词、词组或句子)。
    例句: The ideal listener stays both inside and outside the music at the moment it is played and enjoys it almost as much as the composer at the moment he composes. (2000年第19题)
    分析: 该句是复合句,其中he composes是省略了关系代词which/that的定语从句,修饰the moment, 而almost as much as the composer作状语修饰enjoys。
    译文: 理想的听众是当音乐奏响时既能置身其中又可超然其外的人,并且几乎可以像作曲家在创作音乐时那样享受音乐。
    例句: You have saved my life and I will never forget it.
    分析: it指you have saved my life。
    译文: 你曾经挽救过我的生命,我决不会忘记这件事。
    2. 表示时间、距离、天气等自然现象。
    例句: It is time now to tell the Americans they are on the wrong track.
    译文: 现在是时候告诉美国人他们走错路了。
    例句: She didnt come back until it was 12:00.
    译文: 直到12点她才回来。
    例句: It is about 50 miles to school.
    译文: 到学校大概50英里。
    3. 作形式主语(真正的主语为动名词、不定式或主语从句)
    例句: But its interesting to wonder if the images we see every week of stressfree, happinessenhancing parenthood arent in some small,subconscious way contributing to our own dissatisfactions with the actual experience. (选自2011年Text 4)
    分析: 该句是复合句。其中it是形式主语,真正的主语是to wonder if the images arent contributing to our own dissatisfactions with the actual experience;we see every week of stressfree, happinessenhancing parenthood是一个定语从句,修饰the images;介词短语in some small,subconscious way作状语,表示方式。
    译文: 我们想知道每周看到的“毫无压力、提升幸福感”的为人父母形象是否在以某种细微的、潜意识的方式加剧我们对现行生活体验的不满呢?这很有意思。
    例句: In fact, it is difficult to see how journalists who do not have a clear grasp of the basic features of the Canadian Constitution can do a competent job on political stories.
    (2007年第49题)
    分析: 该句是复合句。it是形式主语,定语从句who do not have a clear grasp...Constitution修饰journalists,can do是宾语从句how...的谓语部分。
    译文: 事实上,很难想象那些对加拿大宪法的基本要点缺乏清晰了解的新闻记者能胜任政治新闻的报道工作。
    4. 作形式宾语
    例句: The financial crisis has made it more acceptable to be between jobs or to leave a bad one. (选自2011年Text 2)
    分析: 该句是简单句。其中it作形式宾语,真正的宾语是to be between jobs or to leave a bad one,more acceptable作宾语补足语。
    译文: 金融危机已经使得等待工作机会或者辞去糟糕的工作这种行为更容易被人接受了。
    例句: There are over 100 night schools in the city, making it possible for a professional to be reeducated no matter what he does. (1998年第7题)
    分析: 该句是简单句。no matter what he does在句中作状语,表示让步,分词短语making...作over 100 night schools的补足语。
    译文: 这个城市有100多所夜校,这使得专业人员无论从事什么工作都有可能接受再教育。
    5. 引出强调句(强调谓语以外的其他成分)
    用强调句型: It is/was+被强调部分+that(who/whom/which)+其他部分,被强调部分常为主语(从句)、宾语(从句)、状语(从句),强调状语时不能用when或where,要用that,翻译成汉语时被强调部分常用“是”、“正是”等来表示强调含义。判断是不是强调句的标准是去掉“it is/was”和“that(who/whom/which)”,如果余下部分是一个完整的句子,说明原句是一个强调句,否则就是一个由it作形式主语的句子。
    例句: It was during the same time that the communications revolution speeded up, beginning with transport, the railway, and leading on through the telegraph, the telephone, radio, and motion pictures into the 20thcentury world of the motor car and the airplane. (选自2002年Use of English)
    分析: 该句是复合句。分词短语beginning with...作主语the communications revolution的补足语,该强调句强调状语during the same time。
    译文: 与此同时,通讯革命也在加速发展,从交通运输、铁路开始,发展到电报、电话、无线电和电影再到20世纪的汽车和飞机。
    例句: Perhaps it is humankinds long suffering at the mercy of flood and drought that makes the ideal of forcing the waters to do our bidding so fascinating. (选自1998年Text 1)
    分析: 该句是简单句。句子主干为humankinds long suffering...makes...so fascinating。其中短语at the mercy of...意为“听凭……摆布,完全受……支配”。
    译文: 也许正是由于人类长期听任旱涝之灾的摆布,才使得让洪水听从人类的调遣这种理想令人如此痴迷。
   
                    
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发表于 2018-5-2 21:31:28 | 显示全部楼层
  二、物主代词
    (一)物主代词包括形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词
    形容词性物主代词只能修饰名词而不能代替名词,而名词性物主代词可以代替名词词组,即“形容词性物主代词+前面所提到的名词”。
    例句: All the offshore oil explorers were in high spirits as they read affectionate letters from their families. (1998年第35题)
    分析: 该句是复合句。出现了as引导的时间状语从句。
    译文: 海洋石油勘探队员们读情深意浓的家书时个个情绪高涨。
    例句: He does not qualify as a teacher of English as his pronunciation is terrible, but hers is quite good.
    分析: 该句是并列句。第一部分是个复合句,出现了as引导的原因状语从句。
    译文: 他因为糟糕的发音而不够资格当英文老师,但她的发音却非常好。
    (二)不同性别的形容词性物主代词修饰名词。
    如:不同性别的形容词性物主代词同时修饰一个名词时,男性物主代词置于女性物主代词前。
    例句: Who do you like best, his or her friends?
    译文: 你最喜欢他的还是她的朋友?
      (三)名词性物主代词(除its外)可与介词of搭配,构成双重所有格
    a/an/some/any/no/another/each/such/several/which/this/that/these/those+名词+of+名词性物主代词。
    如:
    a book of mine
    no fault of hers
    that pen of his
    例句: In March 1998, a friend of Williamss got him involuntarily confined to a treatment center for additions, and wrote to inform the casino of Williamss gambling problems. (选自2006年Part B)
    分析: 该句是简单句。got和wrote是两个并列的谓语动词。
    译文: 1998年3月,威廉姆斯的一个朋友把他强行送入一家戒赌治疗中心,并写信通知赌场有关威廉姆斯的赌博问题。
   

                    
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发表于 2018-5-2 22:05:48 | 显示全部楼层
    三、反身代词
    反身代词在句中作宾语、表语和同位语,使用时注意反身代词与其指代对象在人称、数和性上保持一致。
    例句: According to one belief, if truth is to be known, it will make itself apparent, so one had better wait instead of searching for it. (2001年第3题)
    分析: 该句是复合句,其中had better+ do意为“最好做某事”。
    译文: 按照一种观点,真理若想众人皆知,真理就应该显而易见,所以人们最好是等待而不是去探寻它。
    例句: Prof. White, my respected tutor, frequently reminds me to avail myself of every chance to improve my English. (1999年第35题)
    分析: 该句是简单句。avail oneself of...意为“利用(机会等)”。
    译文: 我敬爱的导师怀特教授经常提醒我抓住每个机会提高英语水平。
    例句: The house belongs to myself.(作介词宾语)
    You yourself did wrong to him.(作同位语)
      四、相互代词
    相互代词只有each other和one another两种,通常前者表示两者之间的相互关系,后者表示两者以上的人或事物之间的相互关系。
    例句: Language, culture, and personality may be considered independently of each other in thought,but they are inseparable in fact. (1996年第31题)
    分析: 该句是由but引导的并列句。
    译文: 在意识形态中,语言、文化和个性可能被认为是相互独立的,但事实上它们是不可分割的。
    例句: In Europe, as elsewhere, multimedia groups have been increasingly successful groups which bring together television, radio, newspapers, magazines and publishing houses that work in relation to one another. (2005年第47题)
    分析: 该句是复合句。句子主干为multimedia groups have been increasingly successful groups。定语从句which bring together...修饰groups,其中television, radio, newspapers, magazines and publishing houses作bring的宾语,即bring...together, 另一个定语从句that work in relation to one another修饰其前面的几个名词。
    译文: 在欧洲,像在其他地方一样,传媒集团扩张越来越成功,这些集团将相关的电视、 广播、报纸、杂志和出版社组合在一起。
    注意: 相互代词的所有格形式为each others,one anothers,其后接不可数名词或可数名词的复数形式,不能接单数可数名词。
   
                    
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发表于 2018-5-2 23:13:41 | 显示全部楼层
  五、指示代词
      (一)this,that和these,those
        指示代词this和that的复数形式分别为these和those,在句中可作主语、宾语、表语和定语,this和these表示较近的空间或时间,that和those表示较远的空间和时间。
    例句: In the past, most foresters have been men, but today, the number of women pursuing this field is climbing.
    分析: 该句是并列句。
    译文: 过去林业工人多半是男人,可如今从事这一行业的妇女人数在增加。
    例句: We are obliged to them because some of these languages have since vanished, as the peoples who spoke them died out or became assimilated and lost their native languages. (2004年第62题)
    分析: 该句是复合句,主句为We are obliged to them。because引导一个状语从句,定语从句who spoke them修饰the peoples,as引导的句子可以看做插入语,补充说明 some of these languages have since vanished的原因。
    译文: 我们之所以感激他们(两位先驱),是因为在此以后,这些语言中有一些已经不复存在了,这是由于使用这些语言的民族或是消亡了,或是被同化而丧失了自己的本族语言。
      (二)指示代词that和those也可用于比较结构,表示前面提到的东西,避免重复
    例句: The number of registered participants in this years marathon was half that of last years. (1996年第7题)
    分析: 该句是简单句,本句的主语是单数名词number,因此后面指代它的代词只能是单数that,谓语用单数。
    译文: 今年登记参加马拉松赛跑的人数是去年的一半。
    例句: His function is analogous to that of a judge, who must accept the obligation of revealing in as obvious a matter as possible the course of reasoning which led him to his decision. (2006年第47题)
    分析: 该句是复合句,主句为His function is analogous to that of a judge。定语从句who must accept...修饰a judge,介词短语in as obvious a matter as possible作状语,用来说明reveal的方式,另一个定语从句which led him to his decision修饰the course of reasoning。
    译文: 他的职责与法官相似,必须承担这样的责任: 用尽可能明了的方式来展示自己作出决定的推理过程。
    例句: These bunches of flowers are more beautiful than those we bought yesterday.
    译文: 这些束花比昨天我们买的那些花漂亮多了。
      (三)指示代词such在句中作主语、表语和定语
    例句: Such is what you want me to do.
    Such are the meanings of authentic love.
    (such作表语时,往往置于句首)
    注意: such用作定语时和副词so的区别在前面副词一节中已提到。
    (四)指示代词same的用法
    在句中作主语、宾语、表语和定语,其前与定冠词the连用。
    例句: Vitamins are similar because they are made of the same elements—usually carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and sometimes nitrogen. (选自1996年Cloze Test)
    分析: 该句是复合句。
    译文: 因为是由同样的元素构成——通常是碳、氢、氧,有时还有氮,所以各种维生素都很相似。
   
                    
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发表于 2018-5-2 23:34:09 | 显示全部楼层
  六、疑问代词
    疑问代词用来构成特殊疑问句,其中who(whom/whose)指人,what指物,which指选择对象。
    例句: Whats the difference between love and fondness or what is the nature of luck and coincidence? (选自2007年Text 2)
    分析: 该句是由or连接的两个简单句(特殊疑问句)。
    译文: 爱情与喜欢有什么区别,幸运和巧合的本质是什么?
      七、关系代词
    关系代词包括who(whom,whose),that和which。that只能引导限制性定语从句,其他关系代词既可引导限制性定语从句也可引导非限制性定语从句,具体用法详见定语从句一节。
        八、不定代词
    (一)both,all
    1. both用于两者,all用于三者及三者以上,其后接名词复数形式,谓语动词用复数,在句中可作主语、宾语、定语和同位语。
    例句: Similar elements in the prehistoric remains from both areas suggest that Indians and their neighbors had maintained distant but real connections even before 1,500 BC.
    分析: 该句是复合句,suggest是主句的谓语动词,that Indians and their neighbors...是一个宾语从句。
    译文: 来自两个地区的史前遗迹中的类似成分表明: 印度人和他们的邻居甚至在公元前1500年前就维持着遥远但真实的联系。
    例句: In the early industrialized countries of Europe the process of industrialization—with all the farreaching changes in social patterns that followed—was spread over nearly a century, whereas nowadays a developing nation may undergo the same process in a decade or so. (2000年第74题)
    分析: 该句是并列复合句,whereas连接两个并列分句,其中前一个分句的主句部分为the process of industrialization was spread over nearly a century,而介词短语with...为主语补足语,定语从句that followed修饰changes。
    译文: 在早先实现工业化的欧洲国家中,其工业化进程以及随之而来的对社会结构有深远影响的变革延续了将近一个世纪,而现如今,一个发展中国家只用十年左右的时间就可以经历同样的过程。
    2. all作代词时,其后谓语动词可以是单数也可以是复数。
    例句: All the information we have collected in relation to that case adds up to very little.
    分析: 该句是复合句,其中主干部分是All the information...adds up to very little,we have collected in relation to that case 是修饰the information的定语从句。
    译文: 我们搜集到的与那件事有关的所有信息都是没有意义的。
    例句: All but he and I are going to attend the meeting.
    译文: 除了我和他之外,所有人都去开会了。
    3. both,all,every和not连用时表示部分否定。
    例句 :But not all parts of the brain are equally involved; the limbic system(the“emotional brain”) is especially active, while the prefrontal cortex (the center of intellect and reasoning) is relatively quiet. (选自2005年Text 3)
    分析: 该句是由分号及while连接的并列句,分号相当于连词and,not all...表示部分否定。
    译文: 但并不是大脑的所有部分都参与活动,控制情绪的大脑部位异常活跃,然而控制智力和推理能力的前额皮质却相对平静。
    例句: Not everyone sees that process in perspective. (选自2002年Use of English)
    分析: 该句是简单句。
    译文: 不是每个人都能正确看待这个过程。
    (二)either, neither, any, each, none, every, some
    1. either和neither是一对反义词,表示“两者中任何一个都(不)”,作名词或形容词。
    用法为:
    either (neither) of the+复数名词+动词单数
    either (neither)+单数名词+动词单数
    如:Either/Neither of these stories (either/neither story) he told us is as attractive and instructive as that one.
    例句: Neither kind of sleep is at all wellunderstood, but REM (rapid eye movements) sleep is assumed to serve some restorative function of the brain.
    分析: 该句是并列句。
    译文: 人们对这两种睡眠都没有完全了解,但认为快速眼动睡眠有使大脑恢复的功能。
    2. either指两者中的任何一个,仅限两者,而each用于两者以上;either和both可互换使用,但both强调整体。
    例句: The relationship between Latin American music and black music in the United States is evident in the unaccented beats that are common to either/both.
    分析: 该句是复合句,定语从句that are common to either/both修饰beats。
    译文: 拉丁美洲音乐同美国黑人音乐的关系明显地表现在这两种音乐各自存在着无重音 节拍这一共同点上。
    例句: We also expect each place to be appropriate to its use.
    分析: 该句是简单句。
    译文: 我们也希望每个地方都恰如其分。
    3. any和none是一对反义词,表示“三者或三者以上中的任何一个都(不)”,其后谓语动词 的单复数参看例句。
    例句: Although Professor Greens lectures usually run over the fiftyminute period, none of his students ever object(s)as they find his lectures both informative and interesting.
    分析: 该句是复合句。
    译文: 虽然格林教授的课通常超过规定的50分钟,但他的学生从无一人表示反对,因为他们发现格林的课既富有知识性又有趣。
    例句: If any man here does not agree with me, he should put forward his own plan of improving the living conditions of these people.
    分析: 该句是复合句。
    译文: 如果在座的有人不赞成我的观点,那么他就应该提出他自己的改善这些人生活条件的方案。
    4. any和some的主要区别在于any用于否定句、条件句和疑问句;some用于肯定句,表示期待对方的肯定答复或以问句形式向对方提出要求或邀请。
    例句: He has failed me so many times that I no longer place any reliance on what he promises. (1997年第23题)
    分析: 该句是复合句。
    译文: 他多次辜负了我的期望,以至于我不再相信他作出的任何承诺。
    例句: The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. (选自2008年Use of English)
    分析: 该句是复合句,主干部分是The idea is one of those hypotheses。that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others是idea的同位语从句,that dare not speak its name是hypotheses的定语从句。
    译文: 认为某些群体的智商要高于其他群体是一个无人敢说出来的假想。
    5. every只能用作形容词,everyone指人,而every one既可以指物也可以指人。
    例句: Without telephone it would be impossible to carry on the functions of practically every business operation in the whole country. (1998年第32题)
    分析: 该句是简单句,本句隐含了一个与现在情况相反的虚拟语气,Without telephone相 当于if there were no telephone。
    译文: 如果没有电话,全国几乎所有的商业运作都不可能正常进行。
    例句: There is an incorrect assumption among scientists and medical people that everyone agrees on what constitutes a benefit to an individual.
    分析: 该句是复合句,that everyone agrees on...作assumption的同位语从句,what constitutes a benefit to an individual作介词on的宾语。
    译文: 科学家和医务人员普遍持有一种不正确的假设,即:人们在什么构成了个人利益问题上意见一致。
   
                    
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发表于 2018-5-3 00:09:53 | 显示全部楼层
  (三)one,the other和another
    1. 两者中一个用one表示,另一个用the other表示,不定数目中的另一个用another表示。
    例句: However, when two monkeys were placed in separate but adjoining chambers, so that each could observe what the other was getting in return for its rock, their behavior became markedly different. (选自2005年Text 1)
    分析: 该句是复合句,主句部分为their behavior became markedly different。 when引 导的时间状语从句中又插入了so that引导的目的状语从句,从句中what the other...作observe的宾语。
    译文: 但是当两只猴子被放在隔开但相邻的两个房间中,而且每只猴子还能看到对方用岩石交换了什么物品之后,他们的行为就发生了巨大变化。
    例句: We had a party last month, and it was a lot of fun, so lets have another one this month.
    分析: 该句是并列句。
    译文: 上个月我们举行了一场晚会,很有意思。因此,我们这个月再举行一场类似的晚会吧。
    2. 表示三者并对三者加以说明。
    表达方法如下:
    one...another...and the other
    one...a second...and the third
    例句: I have three sisters, one is a nurse, another (a second) is a teacher, and the other (and the third) is a doctor.
    注: 表示四者并对四者都加以说明的表达方式是:one...another...a third...and the fourth (the other)...。
    3. One作代词时,前用形容词或the,this,that,which,any,some,each,every等来修饰,另有one of the+复数名词+单数动词。
    例句: That means a higher proportion of what is in the sea is being caught, so the real difference between present and past is likely to be worse than the one recorded by changes in catch sizes. (选自2006年Text 3)
    分析: 该句是复合句,means后的宾语从句省略了连接代词that,what is in the sea作介词 of的宾语,so引导的另一个分句中的the one代替前面的名词difference,分词短语recorded by...作后置定语修饰the one。
    译文: 这意味着更高比例的海洋物种正在被捕捞,因此现在和过去的真正差异可能比根据渔获量的变化所记录的更糟糕。
    例句: One of the responsibilities of the Coast Guard is to make sure that all ships dutifully follow traffic rules in busy harbors. (2001年第13题)
    分析: 该句是复合句,从句that all ships...harbors作make sure的宾语。
    译文: 海岸警卫队的责任之一就是确保所有船只在繁忙的港口严格遵守航运规则。
    注意: that和one都可用来代表句子前面部分中的名词以避免重复: one指代可数名词, 为不确定指代,其复数形式为ones;that指代可数和不可数名词,为确定指代,其复数形式为those。
    例句: No bread eaten by man is so sweet as that earned by his own labor.
    分析: 该句是简单句,其中that代替前面的bread,分词短语earned by his own labor作定语修饰that。
    译文: 什么面包也不如自己劳动挣得的面包香。
    例句: Julia tried to find a good book on physics, but the bookstore she went to yesterday did not have one.
    分析: 该句是并列句,其中第二个分句是一个复合句,she went to yesterday是修饰the bookstore的定语从句。
    译文: 朱丽亚想找一本物理学方面的好书,但昨天她去的那家书店没有。
    4. another后接单数名词,表示的意思是“另一个,又一个(one more);另外的,别的(some other);不同的(a different)”。
    例句: Her mother will be back in another moment, and we have to wait for her.
    分析: 本句是以and连接的并列句。
    译文: 她妈妈再过一会儿就回来,我们还是等等她吧。
    例句: We will visit the History Museum another day.
    译文: 我们改天参观历史博物馆。
    例句: He is planning another tour abroad, yet his passport will expire at the end of this month. (1998年第34题)
    分析: 该句是由yet连接的并列句。
    译文: 他正计划再到国外去旅游,但是他的护照这个月底就到期了。
    5. other通常接复数名词,在any other,every other, no other,some other,the other,one other后,名词也可用单数形式。
    例句: As far as I am concerned, his politics are rather conservative compared with other politicians. (1997年第19题)
    分析: 该句是简单句,其中As far as I am concerned为插入语,other politicians相当于other politicians politics,分词短语compared with other politicians在句中作状语表示时间或条件,相当于when/if his politics are compared with other politicians。
    译文: 依我看,与其他政治家的政治观点相比,他的观点更加保守。
    例句: No other book has had a greater influence on my life.
    译文: 任何书对我一生的影响都没有这本书大。
    例句: Wilson found there was only one other guest besides himself.
    译文: 威尔逊发现除了他自己外只有一个客人。
    注意: other与数目连用时其位置如下:
    基数词+ other+复数名词;
    the other+基数词+复数名词或the+基数词+other+复数名词。
   
                    
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发表于 2018-5-3 00:41:18 | 显示全部楼层
    (四)few,a few; little,a little
    few和a few修饰可数名词;little和a little修饰不可数名词;a few和a little具有肯定含义;few和little具有否定含义;the few和the little表示肯定含义。
    例句: A few premiers are suspicious of any federalprovincial dealmaking.(选自2005年Part B)
    分析: 该句是简单句。
    译文: 一些省督们对由联邦政府联合各省进行谈判的做法心存怀疑。
    例句: The roles expected of old people in such a setting give too few psychological satisfactions for normal happiness. (2000年第7题)
    分析: 该句是简单句,其中分词短语expected of old people在句中作定语修饰the roles。
    译文: 在此情况下,对老年人角色的期望使得他们几乎无法得到心理上的满足,也就无法享受正常的幸福生活。
    例句: Living in the central Australian desert has its problems, of which obtaining water is not the least.
    分析: 该句是复合句,of which obtaining water is...是一个非限制性定语从句修饰 problems,the least是the little的最高级表示肯定意义。
    译文: 居住在澳大利亚沙漠中心有其自身的问题,其中,获取水是很严峻的问题。
    例句: They may teach very well, and more than earn their salaries, but most of them make little or no independent reflections on human problems which involve moral judgment. (2006年第50题)
    分析: 该句是并列复合句,定语从句which involve moral judgment修饰problems,but前后是两个并列句。
    译文: 他们可以教得很好,而且不仅仅是为了挣薪水,但他们大多数人却很少或没有对需要进行道德判断的关于人的问题讲行独立思考。
    (五)most
    most表示大多数、大部分或最大数量、最大程度等,作代词、名词、形容词和副词。
    例句:Its hard to imagine that many people are dumb enough to want children just because Reese and Angelina make it look so glamorous:most adults understand that a baby is not a haircut. (选自2011年Text 4)
    分析:该句是复合句。在主句中,it是形式主语,真正的主语是to imagine that many people are dumb enough to want children;在原因状语从句中,it代表前面提到的to want children;冒号后的内容是对前面内容的解释。
    译文:很难想象,仅仅因为里斯和安吉丽娜使“生孩子”看起来颇具魅力,很多人就愚蠢地跟风效仿:大多数成年人都明白抚养孩子并不像理发那样简单。
    例句: Most newspapers, while devoting the major part of their space to recent events, usually manage to find room on the inside pages for articles on some interesting topics. (2000年第17题)
    分析: 该句是复合句,其中主句为Most newspapers usually manage to find room on the inside pages...topics。从句while后的完整形式应为while they are devoting the major part of their space to recent events。
    译文: 大多数报纸将主要版面用来报道近期发生的事件,但通常也会在内页留出空间刊登一些趣闻。
    例句: Most often the reason for this is that the mother is insensitive to the signals of the infant, whose brain is programmed to learn language rapidly.
    分析: 该句是复合句,that the mother is insensitive to the signals of the infant在句中充当表语从句,定语从句whose brain is...rapidly修饰the infant。
    译文: 其原因往往是母亲对大脑已做好快速学习语言准备的婴儿所发出的信号不敏感。
    1. 单独使用时,most前无冠词。
    例句: Some of the people stayed behind, but most went.
    分析: most=most people,动词用复数。
    2. most后带有限制性定语从句时,前加the。
    例句: The most this hall can seat is 1,000.
    分析: 这是一个复合句,this hall can seat这个定语从句修饰the most。seat是动词,意为“为……提供座位”。
    译文: 这个大厅最多能容纳一千人。
    3. most of the+复数名词表示“大多数……”;most of+形容词性物主代词+单数名词表示“大部分……”。
    例句: Mr.Pollard has visited most of the countries in Europe.
    译文: 波勒德先生已经访问了欧洲大多数国家。
    例句: Most of her book deals with problems in political economy.
    译文: 她的书大部分都是论述政治经济方面的问题的。
    例句: Moreover, most of the changes that companies make are intended to keep them profitable, and this need not always mean increasing productivity: switching to new markets or improving quality can matter just as much. (选自1998年Text 2)
    分析: 该句是并列复合句,and前一分句中that companies make是一定语从句修饰the changes,后一分句中this指代前面句子的所有内容,冒号后的内容作解释。
    译文: 此外,公司改革的目的大部分是为了盈利,这种需求并不一定总是能够提高生产率: 转入新的市场或改善产品质量也能获得同样的效果。
    4. most作副词时构成形容词或副词的最高级;在通俗英语中most=very,修饰形容词或副词,most与mostly的区别在于后者作“大部分”讲(=for the most part)。
    例句: The Eskimo is perhaps one of the most trusting and considerate of all Indians but seems to be indifferent to the welfare of his animals. (2001年第14题)
    分析: 该句是简单句,is与seems to是两个并列谓语。
    译文: 爱斯基摩人可能是所有印第安人中最信任别人也最体贴他人的人,然而他们对自己的动物的福利却好像漠不关心。
    例句: What Mr.Jelly said is mostly(=for the most part) correct.
    译文: 杰勒先生说的话大部分是正确的。
    5. most+名词,表示泛指;most of the+名词,表示特指。
    例句: Most Chinese like fast food.(泛指)
    Most of the people in this district are fond of CCTV5.(特指)
   

                    
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发表于 2018-5-3 01:10:05 | 显示全部楼层
    九、连接代词
    连接代词包括who, whom, whose, what, which, that。其中除what外,其他连接代词也可作关系代词,其区别在于连接代词引导的是主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句等名词性从句,而关系代词引导的是定语从句。
    (一)引导主语从句
    例句: That the sun and not the earth is the center of our planetary system was a difficult concept to grasp in the Middle Ages.
    分析: 该句是复合句,that the sun and not the earth is the center of our planetary system在句中充当主语。
    译文: 太阳是我们行星系的中心(而不是地球)这一概念在中世纪是很难让人明白的。
    例句: It may be said that the measure of the worth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improving experience;but this effect is not a part of its original motive. (2009年第46题)
    分析: 该句是由转折连词but连接的并列句,其中第一个分句中it作形式主语,真正的主语是that the measure of the worth...,of any social institution是worth的后置定语,in enlarging and improving experience是its effect的后置定语。
    译文: 或许可以说,要衡量任何一种社会制度的价值就要看它在丰富和提升人们经验方面的影响,但是这种影响并不是其最初动机的一部分。
    (二)引导宾语从句
    例句: He adds humbly that perhaps he was“superior to the common run of men in noticing things which easily escape attention, and in observing them carefully”. (2008年第49题)
    分析: 该句是复合句,that引导的宾语从句结构是he was superior to..., 其中包含了由which引导的定语从句,in noticing things与in observing them carefully是并列结构。
    译文: 他又自谦地说,或许自己“在注意到容易被忽略的事物,并对其加以仔细观察方面优于常人”。
    例句: I apologize if I had offended you, but I assure you it was unintentional. (1998年第3题)
    分析: 该句是并列复合句,其中短语assure sb. that...意为“向某人保证某事”。
    译文: 如果我冒犯了你,我向你道歉,但我保证那不是故意的。
    (三)引导表语从句
    例句:One of the reasons why the appointment came as such a surprise, however, is that Gilbert is comparatively little known. (选自2011年Text 1)
    分析:该句是复合句。其中,why the appointment came as such a surprise是一个定语从句,修饰reasons,however作插入语,介词短语as such a surprise作状语,修饰came;主句的主干部分是One of the reasons is that Gilbert is comparatively little known。
    译文: 然而,该任命显得如此突然的原因之一就是吉尔伯特比较不为人知。
    例句: The notion is that people have failed to detect the massive changes which have happened in the ocean because they have been looking back only a relatively short time into the past. (选自2006年Text3)
    分析: 该句是复合句,that people have failed to...changes是一个表语从句,which have happened in the ocean作changes的定语,because后引导一个原因状语从句。
    译文: 这个概念是说人们没有注意到发生在海洋里的巨大变化,因为人们只是回顾了过去很短一段时间。
    (四)同位语从句(通常由that引导,也可由whether,what,when,where,why,how引导,进一步说明其前名词的具体内容和含义)
    例句:Allens contribution was to take an assumption we all share—that because we are not robots we therefore control our thoughts—and reveal its erroneous nature. (2011年第46题)
    分析:该句是复合句,主干部分是Allens contribution was to take an assumption and reveal its erroneous nature。其中we all share是一个定语从句,修饰assumption;that because we are not robots we therefore control our thoughts是一个同位语从句,与assumption为同位语关系。
    译文:爱伦的贡献在于他提出了一个公认的假设并揭示了其错误本质,即“我们不是机器人,因此我们能控制自己的思想”。
    例句: But the idea that the journalist must understand the law more profoundly than an ordinary citizen rests on an understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the new media. (2007年第48题)
    分析: 该句是复合句,其中主干结构为the idea...rests on an understanding..., that the journalist must...an ordinary citizen是the idea的同位语从句。
    译文: 新闻记者应该比普通公民更加透彻地了解法律,但这种看法是基于他们对新闻媒体业已确立的规约和特殊责任的理解。
    (五)whatever, who(m)ever, whichever
    连接代词what+ever指不定数目中无论什么,用于物;who(m)+ever指不定数目中无沦是谁,用于人;which+ever指确定数目中无论哪一个,用于人或物。
    例句: Now that you have developed a topic into a tentative thesis, you can assemble your notes and begin to flesh out whatever outline you have made. (选自2008年Part B)
    分析: 该句是复合句,主干部分是you can assemble your notes and begin to flesh out..., whatever outline you have made作flesh out(使充实、具体化)的宾语,从句中develop...into意思是“发展成;变成”。前半部分是now that引导的让步状语从句。
    译文: 既然你已经将一个主题拓展成了一个初步的论题,那么你就可以整合笔记内容,丰富自己拟定的提纲。
    例句: Donovan believed in using whatever tools came to hand in the“great game”of espionage—spying as a“profession”. (选自2003年Text 1)
    分析: 该句是复合句,whatever tools came to...作using的宾语,破折号后的内容是对espionage的解释说明。
    译文: 多诺万认为在职业间谍活动这一“伟大事业”中可以利用任何有用的工具。
   
                    
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