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1998年研究生入学考试英语试题及参考答案

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发表于 2016-6-26 12:55:08 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Section I Structure and Vocabulary
Part A
Directions:
Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (5 points)
Example:
I have been to the Great Wall three times ________ 1979.
[A] from
[B] after
[C] for
[D] since
The sentence should read, "I have been to the Great Wall three times since 1979." Therefore, you should choose [D].
1. I worked so late in the office last night that I hardly had time ________ the last bus.
[A] to have caught
[B] to catch
[C] catching
[D] having caught
2. As it turned out to be a small house party, we ________ so formally.
[A] needn't dress up
[B] did not need have dressed up
[C] did not need dress up
[D] needn't have dressed up
3. I apologize if I ________ you, but I assure you it was unintentional.
[A] offend
[B] had offended
[C] should have offended
[D] might have offended
4. Although a teenager, Fred could resist ________ what to do and what not to do.
[A] to be told
[B] having been told
[C] being told
[D] to have been told
5. Greater efforts to increase agricultural production must be made if food shortage ________ avoided.
[A] is to be
[B] can be
[C] will be
[D] has been
6. Doing your homework is a sure way to improve your test scores, and this is especially true ________ it comes to classroom tests.
[A] before
[B] as
[C] since
[D] when
7. There are over 100 night schools in the city, making it possible for a professional to be re-educated no matter ________ he does.
[A] how
[B] where
[C] what
[D] when
8. I've kept up a friendship with a girl whom I was at school ________ twenty years ago.
[A] about
[B] since
[C] till
[D] with
9. He wasn't asked to take on the chairmanship of the society, ________ insufficiently popular with all members.
[A] being considered
[B] considering
[C] to be considered
[D] having considered
10. ________ for the timely investment from the general public, our company would not be so thriving as it is.
[A] Had it not been
[B] Were it not
[C] Be it not
[D] Should it not be
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发表于 2016-6-26 13:42:16 | 显示全部楼层
Part B
Directions:
Each of the following sentences has four underlined parts marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Identify the part of the sentence that is incorrect and mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (5 points)
Example:
A number of [A] foreign visitors were taken [B] to the industrial exhibition which [C] they saw [D] many new products.
Part [C] is wrong. The sentence should read, "A number of foreign visitors were taken to the industrial exhibition where they saw many new products." So you should choose [C].
11. According to Darwin, random changes that enhance a species'A ability for survivingB areC naturally selected and passed on to succeedingD generations.
12. Neither rain nor snow keepsA the postman from delivering our letters whichB we so muchC look forward to receiveD.
13. If they will not acceptA a check, we shall haveB to pay the cashC, though it would beD much trouble for both sides.
14. Having beenA robbed offB economic importance, those states are notC likely to count for very muchD in international political terms.
15. The message will beA thatB neither the market nor the government is capable of dealing with all of theirC uncontrollable practicesD.
16. The logic of scientific development is suchA that separatesB groups of men working onC the same problem in far-scatteredD laboratories are likely to arrive at the same answer at the same time.
17. Yet not all of these races are intellectual inferior toA the European races, andB some may even have aC freshness and vitality that can renew the energiesD of more advanced races.
18. TheA more than 50,000 nuclear weapons in the hands of various nations today are more thanB ample destroyingC every city in the world several times overD.
19. The universe works in a way so far removeA from what common sense wouldB allow thatC words of any kind must necessarily be inadequate to explain itD.
20. The integration of independent states could best beA brought about by firstB creating a central organization with authoritiesC over technicalD economic tasks.
Part C
Directions:
Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (10 points)
Example:
The lost car of the Lees was found ________ in the woods off the highway.
[A] vanished
[B] scattered
[C] abandoned
[D] rejected
The sentence should read, "The lost car of the Lees was found abandoned in the woods off the highway." Therefore, you should choose [C].
21. The machine needs a complete ________ since it has been in use for over ten years.
[A] amending
[B] fitting
[C] mending
[D] renovating
22. There were many people present and he appeared only for a few seconds, so I only caught a ________ of him.
[A] glance
[B] glimpse
[C] look
[D] sight
23. I don't think it's wise of you to ________ your greater knowledge in front of the director, for it may offend him.
[A] show up
[B] show out
[C] show in
[D] show off
24. The returns in the short ________ may be small, but over a number of years the investment will be well repaid.
[A] interval
[B] range
[C] span
[D] term
25. A thorough study of biology requires ________ with the properties of trees and plants, and the habit of birds and beasts.
[A] acquisition
[B] discrimination
[C] curiosity
[D] familiarity
26. She worked hard at her task before she felt sure that the results would ________ her long effort.
[A] justify
[B] testify
[C] rectify
[D] verify
27. I'm very glad to know that my boss has generously agreed to ________ my debt in return for certain services.
[A] take away
[B] cut out
[C] write off
[D] clear up
28. Some journalists often overstate the situation so that their news may create a great ________.
[A] explosion
[B] sensation
[C] exaggeration
[D] stimulation
29. According to what you have just said, am I to understand that his new post ________ no responsibility with it at all?
[A] shoulders
[B] possesses
[C] carries
[D] shares
30. Sometimes the student may be asked to write about his ________ to a certain book or article that has some bearing on the subject being studied.
[A] comment
[B] reaction
[C] impression
[D] comprehension
31. Please ________ yourself from smoking and spitting in public places, since the law forbids them.
[A] restrain
[B] hinder
[C] restrict
[D] prohibit
32. Without telephone it would be impossible to carry on the functions of ________ every business operation in the whole country.
[A] practically
[B] preferably
[C] precisely
[D] presumably
33. Preliminary estimation puts the figure at around $110 billion, ________ the $160 billion the President is struggling to get through the Congress.
[A] in proportion to
[B] in reply to
[C] in relation to
[D] in contrast to
34. He is planning another tour abroad, yet his passport will ________ at the end of this month.
[A] expire
[B] exceed
[C] terminate
[D] cease
35. All the off-shore oil explorers were in high spirits as they read ________ letters from their families.
[A] sentimental
[B] affectionate
[C] intimate
[D] sensitive
36. Several international events in the early 1990s seem likely to ________, or at least weaken, the trends that emerged in the 1980s.
[A] revolt
[B] revolve
[C] reverse
[D] revive
37. I was unaware of the critical points involved, so my choice was quite ________.
[A] arbitrary
[B] rational
[C] mechanical
[D] unpredictable
38. The local people were joyfully surprised to find the price of vegetables no longer ________ according to the weather.
[A] altered
[B] converted
[C] fluctuated
[D] modified
39. The pursuit of leisure on the part of the employees will certainly not ________ their prospect of promotion.
[A] spur
[B] further
[C] induce
[D] reinforce
40. In what ________ to a last minute stay of execution, a council announced that emergency funding would keep alive two aging satellites.
[A] applies
[B] accounts
[C] attaches
[D] amounts
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发表于 2016-6-26 14:58:16 | 显示全部楼层
Section II Cloze Test
Directions:
For each numbered blank in the following passage, there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C], [D]. Choose the best one and mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (10 points)
Until recently most historians spoke very critically of the Industrial Revolution. They __41__ that in the long run industrialization greatly raised the standard of living for the __42__ man. But they insisted that its __43__ results during the period from 1750 to 1850 were widespread poverty and misery for the __44__ of the English population. __45__ contrast, they saw in the preceding hundred years from 1650 to 1750, when England was still a __46__ agricultural country, a period of great abundance and prosperity.
This view, __47__, is generally thought to be wrong. Specialists __48__ history and economics, have __49__ two things: that the period from 1650 to 1750 was __50__ by great poverty, and that industrialization certainly did not worsen and may have actually improved the conditions for the majority of the populace.
41. [A] admitted
[B] believed
[C] claimed
[D] predicted
42. [A] plain
[B] average
[C] mean
[D] normal
43. [A] momentary
[B] prompt
[C] instant
[D] immediate
44. [A] bulk
[B] host
[C] gross
[D] magnitude
45. [A] On
[B] With
[C] For
[D] By
46. [A] broadly
[B] thoroughly
[C] generally
[D] completely
47. [A] however
[B] meanwhile
[C] therefore
[D] moreover
48. [A] at
[B] in
[C] about
[D] for
49. [A] manifested
[B] approved
[C] shown
[D] speculated
50. [A] noted
[B] impressed
Section III Reading Comprehension
Directions:
Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four answers marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Then mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets. (40 points)
Text 1
Few creations of big technology capture the imagination like giant dams. Perhaps it is humankind's long suffering at the mercy of flood and drought that makes the idea of forcing the waters to do our bidding so fascinating. But to be fascinated is also, sometimes, to be blind. Several giant dam projects threaten to do more harm than good.
The lesson from dams is that big is not always beautiful. It doesn't help that building a big, powerful dam has become a symbol of achievement for nations and people striving to assert themselves. Egypt's leadership in the Arab world was cemented by the Aswan High Dam. Turkey's bid for First World status includes the giant Ataturk Dam.
But big dams tend not to work as intended. The Aswan Dam, for example, stopped the Nile flooding but deprived Egypt of the fertile silt that floods left -- all in return for a giant reservoir of disease which is now so full of silt that it barely generates electricity.
And yet, the myth of controlling the waters persists. This week, in the heart of civilized Europe, Slovaks and Hungarians stopped just short of sending in the troops in their contention over a dam on the Danube. The huge complex will probably have all the usual problems of big dams. But Slovakia is bidding for independence from the Czechs, and now needs a dam to prove itself.
Meanwhile, in India, the World Bank has given the go-ahead to the even more wrong-headed Narmada Dam. And the bank has done this even though its advisors say the dam will cause hardship for the powerless and environmental destruction. The benefits are for the powerful, but they are far from guaranteed.
Proper, scientific study of the impacts of dams and of the cost and benefits of controlling water can help to resolve these conflicts. Hydroelectric power and flood control and irrigation are possible without building monster dams. But when you are dealing with myths, it is hard to be either proper, or scientific. It is time that the world learned the lessons of Aswan. You don't need a dam to be saved.
51. The third sentence of paragraph 1 implies that ________.
[A] people would be happy if they shut their eyes to reality
[B] the blind could be happier than the sighted
[C] over-excited people tend to neglect vital things
[D] fascination makes people lose their eyesight
52. In paragraph 5, "the powerless" probably refers to ________.
[A] areas short of electricity
[B] dams without power stations
[C] poor countries around India
[D] common people in the Narmada Dam area
53. What is the myth concerning giant dams?
[A] They bring in more fertile soil.
[B] They help defend the country.
[C] They strengthen international ties.
[D] They have universal control of the waters.
54. What the author tries to suggest may best be interpreted as ________.
[A] "It's no use crying over spilt milk"
[B] "More haste, less speed"
[C] "Look before you leap"
[D] "He who laughs last laughs best"
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发表于 2016-6-26 15:22:42 | 显示全部楼层
Text 2
Well, no gain without pain, they say. But what about pain without gain? Everywhere you go in America, you hear tales of corporate revival. What is harder to establish is whether the productivity revolution that businessmen assume they are presiding over is for real.
The official statistics are mildly discouraging. They show that, if you lump manufacturing and services together, productivity has grown on average by 1.2% since 1987. That is somewhat faster than the average during the previous decade. And since 1991, productivity has increased by about 2% a year, which is more than twice the 1978-1987 average. The trouble is that part of the recent acceleration is due to the usual rebound that occurs at this point in a business cycle, and so is not conclusive evidence of a revival in the underlying trend. There is, as Robert Rubin, the treasury secretary, says, a "disjunction" between the mass of business anecdote that points to a leap in productivity and the picture reflected by the statistics.
Some of this can be easily explained. New ways of organizing the workplace -- all that re-engineering and downsizing -- are only one contribution to the overall productivity of an economy, which is driven by many other factors such as joint investment in equipment and machinery, new technology, and investment in education and training. Moreover, most of the changes that companies make are intended to keep them profitable, and this need not always mean increasing productivity: switching to new markets or improving quality can matter just as much.
Two other explanations are more speculative. First, some of the business restructuring of recent years may have been ineptly done. Second, even if it was well done, it may have spread much less widely than people suppose.
Leonard Schlesinger, a Harvard academic and former chief executive of Au Bong Pain, a rapidly growing chain of bakery cafes, says that much "re-engineering" has been crude. In many cases, he believes, the loss of revenue has been greater than the reductions in cost. His colleague, Michael Beer, says that far too many companies have applied re-engineering in a mechanistic fashion, chopping out costs without giving sufficient thought to long term profitability. BBDO's Al Rosenshine is blunter. He dismisses a lot of the work of re-engineering consultants as mere rubbish -- "the worst sort of ambulance cashing."
55. According to the author, the American economic situation is ________.
[A] not as good as it seems
[B] at its turning point
[C] much better than it seems
[D] near to complete recovery
56. The official statistics on productivity growth ________.
[A] exclude the usual rebound in a business cycle
[B] fall short of businessmen's anticipation
[C] meet the expectation of business people
[D] fail to reflect the true state of economy
57. The author raises the question "what about pain without gain?" because ________.
[A] he questions the truth of "no gain without pain"
[B] he does not think the productivity revolution works
[C] he wonders if the official statistics are misleading
[D] he has conclusive evidence for the revival of businesses
58. Which of the following statements is NOT mentioned in the passage?
[A] Radical reforms are essential for the increase of productivity.
[B] New ways of organizing workplaces may help to increase productivity.
[C] The reduction of costs is not a sure way to gain long term profitability.
[D] The consultants are a bunch of good-for-nothings.
Text 3
Science has long had an uneasy relationship with other aspects of culture. Think of Gallileo's 17th century trial for his rebelling belief before the Catholic Church or poet William Blake's harsh remarks against the mechanistic worldview of Isaac Newton. The schism between science and the humanities has, if anything, deepened in this century.
Until recently, the scientific community was so powerful that it could afford to ignore its critics -- but no longer. As funding for science has declined, scientists have attacked "antiscience" in several books, notably Higher Superstition, by Paul R. Gross, a biologist at the University of Virginia, and Norman Levitt, a mathematician at Rutgers University; and The Demon-Haunted World, by Carl Sagan of Cornell University.
Defenders of science have also voiced their concerns at meetings such as "The Flight from Science and Reason," held in New York City in 1995, and "Science in the Age of (Mis) information," which assembled last June near Buffalo.
Antiscience clearly means different things to different people. Gross and Levitt find fault primarily with sociologists, philosophers and other academics who have questioned science's objectivity. Sagan is more concerned with those who believe in ghosts, creationism and other phenomena that contradict the scientific worldview.
A survey of news stories in 1996 reveals that the antiscience tag has been attached to many other groups as well, from authorities who advocated the elimination of the last remaining stocks of smallpox virus to Republicans who advocated decreased funding for basic research.
Few would dispute that the term applies to the Unabomber, whose manifesto, published in 1995, scorns science and longs for return to a pre-technological utopia. But surely that does not mean environmentalists concerned about uncontrolled industrial growth are antiscience, as an essay in US News & World Report last May seemed to suggest.
The environmentalists, inevitably, respond to such critics. The true enemies of science, argues Paul Ehrlich of Stanford University, a pioneer of environmental studies, are those who question the evidence supporting global warming, the depletion of the ozone layer and other consequences of industrial growth.
Indeed, some observers fear that the antiscience epithet is in danger of becoming meaningless. "The term ‘antiscience' can lump together too many, quite different things," notes Harvard University philosopher Gerald Holton in his 1993 work Science and Anti-Science. "They have in common only one thing that they tend to annoy or threaten those who regard themselves as more enlightened."
59. The word "schism" (Line 4, Paragraph 1) in the context probably means ________.
[A] confrontation
[B] dissatisfaction
[C] separation
[D] contempt
60. Paragraphs 2 and 3 are written to ________.
[A] discuss the cause of the decline of science's power
[B] show the author's sympathy with scientists
[C] explain the way in which science develops
[D] exemplify the division of science and the humanities
61. Which of the following is true according to the passage?
[A] Environmentalists were blamed for antiscience in an essay.
[B] Politicians are not subject to the labeling of antiscience.
[C] The "more enlightened" tend to tag others as antiscience.
[D] Tagging environmentalists as "antiscience" is justifiable.
62. The author's attitude toward the issue of "science vs. antiscience" is ________.
[A] impartial
[B] subjective
[C] biased
[D] puzzling
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发表于 2016-6-26 16:44:29 | 显示全部楼层
Text 4
Emerging from the 1980 census is the picture of a nation developing more and more regional competition, as population growth in the Northeast and Midwest reaches a near standstill.
This development -- and its strong implications for US politics and economy in years ahead -- has enthroned the South as America's most densely populated region for the first time in the history of the nation's head counting.
Altogether, the US population rose in the 1970s by 23.2 million people -- numerically the third largest growth ever recorded in a single decade. Even so, that gain adds up to only 11.4 percent, lowest in American annual records except for the Depression years.
Americans have been migrating south and west in larger number since World War II, and the pattern still prevails.
Three sun-belt states -- Florida, Texas and California -- together had nearly 10 million more people in 1980 than a decade earlier. Among large cities, San Diego moved from 14th to 8th and San Antonio from 15th to 10th -- with Cleveland and Washington. D. C. dropping out of the top 10.
Not all that shift can be attributed to the movement out of the snow belt, census officials say, Nonstop waves of immigrants played a role, too -- and so did bigger crops of babies as yesterday's "baby boom" generation reached its child bearing years.
Moreover, demographers see the continuing shift south and west as joined by a related but newer phenomenon: More and more, Americans apparently are looking not just for places with more jobs but with fewer people, too. Some instances-
■Regionally, the Rocky Mountain states reported the most rapid growth rate -- 37.1 percent since 1970 in a vast area with only 5 percent of the US population.
■Among states, Nevada and Arizona grew fastest of all: 63.5 and 53.1 percent respectively. Except for Florida and Texas, the top 10 in rate of growth is composed of Western states with 7.5 million people -- about 9 per square mile.
The flight from overcrowdedness affects the migration from snow belt to more bearable climates.
Nowhere do 1980 census statistics dramatize more the American search for spacious living than in the Far West. There, California added 3.7 million to its population in the 1970s, more than any other state.
In that decade, however, large numbers also migrated from California, mostly to other parts of the West. Often they chose -- and still are choosing -- somewhat colder climates such as Oregon, Idaho and Alaska in order to escape smog, crime and other plagues of urbanization in the Golden State.
As a result, California's growth rate dropped during the 1970s, to 18.5 percent -- little more than two thirds the 1960s' growth figure and considerably below that of other Western states.
63. Discerned from the perplexing picture of population growth the 1980 census provided, America in 1970s ________.
[A] enjoyed the lowest net growth of population in history
[B] witnessed a southwestern shift of population
[C] underwent an unparalleled period of population growth
[D] brought to a standstill its pattern of migration since World War II
64. The census distinguished itself from previous studies on population movement in that ________.
[A] it stresses the climatic influence on population distribution
[B] it highlights the contribution of continuous waves of immigrants
[C] it reveals the Americans' new pursuit of spacious living
[D] it elaborates the delayed effects of yesterday's "baby boom"
65. We can see from the available statistics that ________.
[A] California was once the most thinly populated area in the whole US
[B] the top 10 states in growth rate of population were all located in the West
[C] cities with better climates benefited unanimously from migration
[D] Arizona ranked second of all states in its growth rate of population
66. The word "demographers" (Line 1, Paragraph 8) most probably means ________.
[A] people in favor of the trend of democracy
[B] advocates of migration between states
[C] scientists engaged in the study of population
[D] conservatives clinging to old patterns of life
Text 5
Scattered around the globe are more than 100 small regions of isolated volcanic activity known to geologists as hot spots. Unlike most of the world's volcanoes, they are not always found at the boundaries of the great drifting plates that make up the earth's surface; on the contrary, many of them lie deep in the interior of a plate. Most of the hot spots move only slowly, and in some cases the movement of the plates past them has left trails of dead volcanoes. The hot spots and their volcanic trails are milestones that mark the passage of the plates.
That the plates are moving is now beyond dispute. Africa and South America, for example, are moving away from each other as new material is injected into the sea floor between them. The complementary coastlines and certain geological features that seem to span the ocean are reminders of where the two continents were once joined. The relative motion of the plates carrying these continents has been constructed in detail, but the motion of one plate with respect to another cannot readily be translated into motion with respect to the earth's interior. It is not possible to determine whether both continents are moving in opposite directions or whether one continent is stationary and the other is drifting away from it. Hot spots, anchored in the deeper layers of the earth, provide the measuring instruments needed to resolve the question. From an analysis of the hot-spot population it appears that the African plate is stationary and that it has not moved during the past 30 million years.
The significance of hot spots is not confined to their role as a frame of reference. It now appears that they also have an important influence on the geophysical processes that propel the plates across the globe. When a continental plate come to rest over a hot spot, the material rising from deeper layer creates a broad dome. As the dome grows, it develops seed fissures (cracks); in at least a few cases the continent may break entirely along some of these fissures, so that the hot spot initiates the formation of a new ocean. Thus just as earlier theories have explained the mobility of the continents, so hot spots may explain their mutability (inconstancy).
67. The author believes that ________.
[A] the motion of the plates corresponds to that of the earth's interior
[B] the geological theory about drifting plates has been proved to be true
[C] the hot spots and the plates move slowly in opposite directions
[D] the movement of hot spots proves the continents are moving apart
68. That Africa and South America were once joined can be deduced from the fact that ________.
[A] the two continents are still moving in opposite directions
[B] they have been found to share certain geological features
[C] the African plates has been stable for 30 million years
[D] over 100 hot spots are scattered all around the globe
69. The hot spot theory may prove useful in explaining ________.
[A] the structure of the African plates
[B] the revival of dead volcanoes
[C] the mobility of the continents
[D] the formation of new oceans
70. The passage is mainly about ________.
[A] the features of volcanic activities
[B] the importance of the theory about drifting plates
[C] the significance of hot spots in geophysical studies
[D] the process of the formation of volcanoes
[C] labeled
[D] marked
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发表于 2016-6-26 17:40:11 | 显示全部楼层
Section IV English-Chinese Translation
Directions:
Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined sentences into Chinese. Your translation must be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)
They were, by far, the largest and most distant objects that scientists had ever detected: a strip of enormous cosmic clouds some 15 billion light years from earth. 71) But even more important, it was the farthest that scientists had been able to look into the past, for what they were seeing were the patterns and structures that existed 15 billion years ago. That was just about the moment that the universe was born. What the researchers found was at once both amazing and expected; the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cosmic Background Explorer satellite -- Cobe -- had discovered landmark evidence that the universe did in fact begin with the primeval explosion that has become known as the Big Bang (the theory that the universe originated in an explosion from a single mass of energy).
72) The existence of the giant clouds was virtually required for the Big Bang, first put forward in the 1920s, to maintain its reign as the dominant explanation of the cosmos. According the theory, the universe burst into being as a submicroscopic, unimaginable dense knot of pure energy that flew outward in all directions, emitting radiation as it went, condensing into particles and then into atoms of gas. Over billions of years, the gas was compressed by gravity into galaxies, stars, plants and eventually, even humans.
Cobe is designed to see just the biggest structures, but astronomers would like to see much smaller hot spots as well, the seeds of local objects like clusters and superclusters of galaxies. They shouldn't have long to wait. 73) Astrophysicists working with ground based detectors at the South Pole and balloon borne instruments are closing in on such structures, and may report their findings soon.
74) If the small hot spots look as expected, that will be a triumph for yet another scientific idea, a refinement of the Big Bang called the inflationary universe theory. Inflation says that very early on, the universe expanded in size by more than a trillion trillion trillion trillion fold in much less than a second, propelled by a sort of antigravity. 75) Odd though it sounds, cosmic inflation is a scientifically plausible consequence of some respected ideas in elementary particle physics, and many astrophysicists have been convinced for the better part of a decade that it is true.
71. ________
72. ________
73. ________
74. ________
75. ________
Section V Writing
Directions:
[A] Study the following cartoon carefully and write an essay in no less than 150 words.
[B] Your essay must be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)
[C] Your essay should meet the requirements below:
1. Write out the messages conveyed by the cartoon.
2. Give your comments

20160513100846966.gif

20160513100846966.gif

参考答案:
1. D 2. B 3. A 4. C 5. A
6. D 7. B 8. D 9. C IO. A
11. D, were 12. D, saving
13. C, family-run 14. C, environmental
15. B, that 16. A, in
17. C, to make 18. D, skinned
19. B, great 20. D, until
21. A 22. D 23. C 24. B 25. A
26. C 27. A 28. B 29. D 30. C
31. C 32. B 33. D 34. C 35. C
36. B 37. A 38. B 39. D 40. B
41. D 42. A 43. B 44. A 45. B
46. C 47. D 48. C 49. A 50. D
51. B 52. C 53. A 54. D 55. A
56. C 57. D 58. B 59. B 60. D
61. C 62. A 63. B 64. C 65. D
66. A 67. A 68. B 69. D 70. A
71.几乎每个历史学家对史学都有自己的界定,但现代史学家的实践最趋向于认为历史学是试图重现过去的重大史实并对其做出解释。
72.人们之所以关注历史研究的方法论,主要是因为史学界内部意见不一,其次是因为外界并不认为历史是一门学问。
73.在这种转变中,历史学家研究历史时,那些解释新史料的新方法充实了传统的历史研究方法。
74.所谓方法论是指一般的历史研究中的特有概念,还是指历史探究中各个具体领域适用的研究手段,人们对此意见不一。
75.这种谬误同样存在于历史传统派和历史社科派;前者认为历史就是史学界内部和外部人士对各种史料来源的评论,后者认为历史的研究是具体方法的研究。
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