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2012考研英语四月份基础阶段测试题及答案_跨考网

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发表于 2018-12-8 12:34:31 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  Section I Structure and Vocabulary
          Directions:
          Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Choose the one that best completes the sentence and put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET (20 points)
          1. As scheduled, the communications satellite went into ________ round the earth.
          [A] circle
          [B] orbit
          [C] path
          [D] course
          2. I don’t want to lend any more money to him; he’s already in debt ________ me.
          [A] to
          [B] for
          [C] of
          [D] with
          3. ________ to speak when the audience interrupted him.
          [A] Hardly had he begun
          [B] No sooner had he begun
          [C] Not until he began
          [D] Scarcely did he begin
          4. Jean Wagner’s most enduring contribution to the study of Afro-American poetry is his insistence that it ____ in a religious, as well as worldly, frame of reference.
          [A]is to be analyzed
          [B]has been analyzed
          [C]be analyzed
          [D]should have been analyzed
          5. Humble ____ it may be, there’s no place like home, where he may go.
          [A]although
          [B]as
          [C]how
          [D]which
          6. Although he thought he was helping us prepare the dinner, he was actually ________ the way.
          [A] in
          [B] by
          [C] off
          [D] on
          7. Although the false banknotes fooled many people, they did not close examination.
          [A] put up
          [B] keep up
          [C] stand up to
          [D] look up to
          8. Anna was reading a piece of science fiction, completely ________ to the outside world.
          [A] being lost
          [B] having lost
          [C] losing
          [D] lost
          9. Our modern civilization must not be thought of as ________ in a short period of time.
          [A] being created
          [B] to have been created
          [C] having been created
          [D] to be created
          10. The students expected there ________ more reviewing classes before the final exam.
          [A] is
          [B] being
          [C] have been
          [D] to be
         
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 13:22:12 | 显示全部楼层

                        
       
         
          11. The patient has been ________ of the safety of the operation.
          [A] assured
          [B] guaranteed
          [C] entrusted
          [D] confirmed
          12. Will you ________ this passage to see if there is any misprint?
          [A] look up
          [B] go over
          [C] dwell on
          [D] work out
          13. The album is as it was the only one ever signed by the President.
          [A] unusual
          [B] unique
          [C] rare
          [D] singular
          14. Prof. Ward hardly ever went to the theater.
          [A] neither the cinema nor
          [B] neither the cinema or
          [C] either the cinema or
          [D] either the cinema nor
          15. The bank is reported ________ in the local newspaper in broad daylight yesterday.
          [A] to be robbed
          [B] robbed
          [C] to have been robbed
          [D] having been robbed
          16. Talk to anyone in the drug industry, you’ll soon discover that the science of genetics is the biggest thing to hit drug research since penicillin was discovered.
          [A] or
          [B] so
          [C] for
          [D] and
          17. Had Paul received six more votes in the last election, he ________ our chairman now.
          [A] must have been
          [B] would have been
          [C] were
          [D] would be
          18. Stressful environments lead to unhealthy behaviors such as poor eating habits, which ________ increase the risk of heart disease.
          [A] in turn
          [B] in return
          [C] by chance
          [D] by turns
          19. The tourist is prevented from entering a country if he does not have ________ passport.
          [A] an operative
          [B] a valid
          [C] an efficient
          [D] an effective
          20. The project requires more labor than ________.
          [A] has been put in
          [B] have been put in
          [C] being put in
          [D] to be put in
         
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 13:48:54 | 显示全部楼层

                        
       
         
          Section II Use of English
          Directions:
          Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
          Reading to oneself is a modern activity which was almost unknown to the scholars of the classical and 21 worlds, while during the fifteenth century the term “reading” 22 meant reading aloud. Only during the nineteenth century did silent reading become commonplace. ­One should be wary, however, of 23 that silent reading came about simply because reading aloud is a(n) 24 to others. Examination of factors related to the 25 development of silent reading reveals that it became the usual mode of reading for most adult reading tasks mainly because the tasks themselves changed in 26 .
          The last century saw a steady gradual increase in 27 , and thus in the number of readers. As readers increased, the number of potential listeners 28 , and thus there was some 29 in the need to read aloud. As reading for the benefit of listeners grew less common, so came the flourishing of reading as a 30 activity in such public places as libraries, railway carriages and offices, where reading aloud would 31 distraction to other readers.
          Towards the end of the century there was still 32 argument over whether books should be used for information or treated 33 , and over whether the reading of material such as newspapers was in some way 34 weakening. Indeed this argument remains with us still in education. 35 , its virtues, the old shared literacy culture had gone and was 36 by the printed mass media on the one hand and by books and periodicals for a 37 readership on the other.
          By the end of the century students were being recommended to adopt attitudes to books and to use skills in reading them which were inappropriate, 38 not impossible, for the oral reader. The social, cultural, and technological changes in the century had greatly 39 what the term “reading” 40 .
          21.
          [A]contemporary
          [B]modern
          [C]medieval
          [D]western
          22.
          [A]undoubtedly
          [B]really
          [C]absolutely
          [D]accordingly
          23.
          [A]imagining
          [B]consuming
          [C]resuming
          [D]assuming
          24.
          [A]interruption
          [B]distraction
          [C]bother
          [D]pressure
          25.
          [A]historical
          [B]historic
          [C]history
          [D]historian
          26.
          [A]quality
          [B]character
          [C]personality
          [D]distinctiveness
          27.
          [A]literate
          [B]illiterate
          [C]literacy
          [D]literature
          28.
          [A]receded
          [B]declined
          [C]increased
          [D]expanded
          29.
          [A]limitation
          [B]necessity
          [C]reduction
          [D]shrink
          30.
          [A]private
          [B]overt
          [C]public
          [D]secret
          31.
          [A]cause
          [B]effect
          [C]produce
          [D]realize
          32.
          [A]considerable
          [B]considerate
          [C]moderate
          [D]immoderate
          33.
          [A]respectively
          [B]honorably
          [C]respectfully
          [D]relatively
          34.
          [A]largely
          [B]intelligently
          [C]mentally
          [D]physically
          35.
          [A]However
          [B]Whatever
          [C]Whichever
          [D]Wherever
          36.
          [A]replaced
          [B]taken
          [C]followed
          [D]distinguished
          37.
          [A]specific
          [B]special
          [C]specified
          [D]specialized
          38.
          [A]and
          [B]if
          [C]but
          [D]or
          39.
          [A]translated
          [B]differed
          [C]shifted
          [D]altered
          40.
          [A]inferred
          [B]advised
          [C]induced
          [D]implied
         
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 14:43:52 | 显示全部楼层

                        
       
         
          Section III Reading Comprehension
          Directions:
          Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question four answers are given. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
          Text 1
          The entrepreneur, according to French economist J.B. Say, “is a person who shifts economic resources out of an area of lower and into an area of higher productivity and yield.” But Say’s definition does not tell us who this entrepreneur is. Some define the entrepreneur simply as one who starts his or her own new and small business. For our purposes, we will define the entrepreneur as a person who takes the necessary risks to organize and manage a business and receives the financial profits and nonmonetary rewards.
          The man who opens a small pizza restaurant is in business, but is he an entrepreneur? He took a risk and did something, but did he shift resources or start the business? If the answer is yes, then he is considered an entrepreneur. Ray Kroc is an example of an entrepreneur because he founded and established McDonald’s. His hamburgers were not a new idea, but he applied new techniques, resource allocations, and organizational methods in his venture. Ray Kroc upgraded the productivity and yield from the resources applied to create his fast-food chain. This is what entrepreneurs do; this is what entrepreneurship means.
          Many of the sharp, black-and-white contrasts between the entrepreneur and the professional have faded to gray color. Formerly, professionals such as doctors, lawyers, dentists, and accountants were not supposed to be entrepreneurial, aggressive, or market oriented. They were “above” the market-driven world. Entrepreneurs, on the other hand, were the mavericks of society. They were risk-takers who aggressively sought to make something happen. Long hours were about all the two worlds had in common. However, increased competition, saturated markets, and a more price-conscious public have changed the world of the professionals. Today they need to market their skills, talents, and competencies. Lawyers advertise their services. Doctors specialize in one form of surgery. Accounting firms join with other businesses (e.g., consulting and law) to serve clients.
          Entrepreneurs exhibit many different behaviors; searching for a specific personality pattern is very difficult. Some entrepreneurs are quiet, introverted, and analytical. On the other hand, some are brash, extroverted, and very emotional. Many of them share some qualities. Viewing change as the norm, entrepreneurs usually search for it, respond to it, and treat it as an opportunity. An entrepreneur such as Ray Kroc of McDonald’s is able to take resources and shift them to meet a need. Making the decision to shift resources works better if a person is creative, experienced, and confident.
          41. According to the first paragraph, who can be regarded as an entrepreneur?
          [A] The CEO of a big company.
          [B] The owner of a profitable restaurant.
          [C] A man who started a new kind of business.
          [D] A successful salesman.
          42. According to the text, the professionals .
          [A] are quite different from entrepreneurs even now
          [B] were considered to be enterprising and market-centered
          [C] were price-conscious
          [D] have to advertise themselves in nowadays
          43. From the text, we learn that .
          [A] an entrepreneur should be very extroverted
          [B] an entrepreneur should be quick to seize opportunities
          [C] change is not norm in an entrepreneur’s eyes
          [D] the French economist J.B. Say is the first person who gave the definition of “entrepreneur”
          44. The purpose of the author in writing the passage is to .
          [A] complete the definition of entrepreneur
          [B] tell the readers what is entrepreneur and the main characteristics of entrepreneurs
          [C] show what kind of people can become entrepreneurs
          [D] illustrate why Ray Kroc can become an entrepreneur
          45. What will most possibly follow the text?
          [A] An example of how an entrepreneur operates.
          [B] Another theory about entrepreneurship.
          [C] The bad effects of entrepreneurs.
          [D] The good effects of entrepreneurs.
         
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 16:07:03 | 显示全部楼层

                        
       
         
          Text 2
          St. Paul didn’t like it. Moses warned his people against it. Hesiod declared it “mischievious” and “hard to get rid of it,” but Oscar Wilder said, “Gossip is charming.”
          “History is merely gossip,” he wrote in one of his famous plays. “But scandal is gossip made tedious by morality.”
          In times past, under Jewish law, gossipmongers might be fined or flogged. The Puritans put them in stocks or ducking stools, but no punishment seemed to have the desired effect of preventing gossip, which has continued uninterrupted across the back fences of the centuries.
          Today, however, the much-maligned human foible is being looked at in a different light. Psychologists, sociologists, philosophers, even evolutionary biologists are concluding that gossip may not be so bad after all.
          Gossip is “an intrinsically valuable activity,” philosophy professor Aaron Ben-Ze’ev states in a book he has edited, entitled Good Gossip. For one thing, gossip helps us acquire information that we need to know that doesn’t come through ordinary channels, such as: “What was the real reason so-and-so was fired from the office?” Gossip also is a form of social bonding, Dr. Ben-Ze’ev says. It is “a kind of sharing” that also “satisfies the tribal need—namely, the need to belong to and be accepted by a unique group.” What’s more, the professor notes, “Gossip is enjoyable.”
          Another gossip groupie, Dr. Ronald De Sousa, a professor of philosophy at the University of Toronto, describes gossip basically as a form of indiscretion and a “saintly virtue”, by which he means that the knowledge spread by gossip will usually end up being slightly beneficial. “It seems likely that a world in which all information were universally available would be preferable to a world where immense power resides in the control of secrets,” he writes.
          Still, everybody knows that gossip can have its ill effects, especially on the poor wretch being gossiped about. And people should refrain from certain kinds of gossip that might be harmful, even though the ducking stool is long out of fashion.
          By the way, there is also an interesting strain of gossip called medical gossip, which in its best form, according to researchers Jerry M. Suls and Franklin Goodkin, can motivate people with symptoms of serious illness, but who are unaware of it, to seek medical help.
          So go ahead and gossip. But remember, if (as often is the case among gossipers) you should suddenly become one of the gossipees instead, it is best to employ the foolproof defense recommended by Plato, who may have learned the lesson from Socrates, who as you know was the victim of gossip spread that he was corrupting the youth of Athens: When men speak ill of thee, so live that nobody will believe them. Or, as Will Rogers said, “Live so that you wouldn’t be ashamed to sell the family parrot to the town gossip.”
          46. Persons’ remarks are mentioned at the beginning of the text to ____.
          [A] show the general disapproval of gossip
          [B] introduce the topic of gossip
          [C] examine gossip from a historical perspective
          [D] prove the real value of gossip
          47. By “Gossip also is a form of social bonding” (Para. 5), Professor Aaron Ben-Ze’ev means gossip ____.
          [A] is a valuable source of social information
          [B] produces a joy that most people in society need
          [C] brings people the feel of being part of a group
          [D] satisfies people’s need of being unusual
          48. Which of the following statements is true according to the text?
          [A] everyone involved will not benefit from gossip.
          [B] philosophers may hold different attitudes toward gossip.
          [C] Dr. Ronald De Sousa regards gossips as perfectly advantageous.
          [D] people are generally not conscious of the value of medical gossip.
          49. We learn from the last paragraph that ____.
          [A] gossipers will surely become gossipees someday
          [B] Socrates was a typical example of a gossiper becoming a gossipee
          [C] Plato escaped being a victim of gossip by no gossiping
          [D] an easy way to confront gossip when subjected to it is to live as usual
          50. The author’s attitude toward “gossip” can be best described as ____.
          [A] neutral
          [B] positive
          [C] negative
          [D] indifferent
         
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 17:02:08 | 显示全部楼层

                        
       
         
          Text 3
          Efforts could potentially avoid at least some of the psychopathy (mental illness) that underlies school shootings, since medicine now can help even the most severely ill. And they would also benefit the many young people struggling with far less extreme brain disorders.
          The U.S. Secret Service, which studies “targeted violence”, provides insight on the urgency of the need in its 2002 “Safe School Initiative” report: School attacks, instead of being the random impulsive acts of noisy and cruel fellows, are well-planned events mostly carried out by a single student—who is not evil but mentally ill. Except for being male, the 41 attackers studied fit no profile of family background,race,ethnicity,or even academic performance. Many were A and B students. Few had a history of violent or criminal behavior. But their thoughts were of violence, and their behavior was often intimidating. They frequently expressed violent themes in their writings, in one instance portraying killing and suicide as solutions to feelings of despair. The criminals often had telegraphed to other students and teachers their depression or desperation and either talked about or had attempted suicide. Feelings of persecution by others were common and led to growing resentment and anger.
          Psychiatrists and psychologists recognize that these are red flags demanding medical intervention. Yet one of most striking findings in the report was that the vast majority of these students never had a mental-health evaluation. No wonder only 17 percent were diagnosed with a psychiatric illness—it wasn’t looked for. That alone points to a huge mental health gap: If the distress of these students didn’t trigger medical attention, it’s unlikely that less severe struggles that are seen in as many as 15 to 20 percent of other students will do so.
          Only recently have we learned that these are neurodevelopmental disorders whose early signs might well be picked up in routine podiatric screening. For example, a classic behavior in a child that can precede psychosis later in 1ife is speaking to almost no one, even family, says Nasrallah.
          Genes are known to confer vulnerability, but equally important is the environment. Stress or great disappointment can aggravate symptoms; Connecting with an adult in an ongoing relationship can do the opposite. Interventions like social-skills training combined with talk therapy and targeted medication can make a huge difference. Early treatment can lessen the frequency and intensity of psychotic episodes, leaving many patients with only the mildest of symptoms. And the younger the brain, the more malleable is. The ultimate goal is to not only modify evaluation of disease but keep it from arising in the first place. This is achievable, and the path to get there is becoming clear.
          51. According to the US Secret Service, school attacks are characterized as .
          [A] reactive
          [B] revengeful
          [C] plotted
          [D] impulsive
          52. One common characteristic of school attackers is that .
          [A] they exhibit bad academic performances
          [B] they have violent thoughts and intimidating behavior
          [C] they regard homicide and suicide as ways of tackling despair
          [D] they have records of violence and crimes
          53. Which of the following is true according to Paragraph 3?
          [A] There is a huge gap between human mentality.
          [B] The school attackers have never had any mental health evaluation.
          [C] Medical attention should be paid to the distress of school attackers.
          [D] The findings of the report astonished psychiatrists and psychologists.
          54. The word “malleable” (Line 5, Paragraph 5) is closest in meaning to .
          [A] miserable
          [B] adaptable
          [C] vulnerab1e
          [D] feeble
          55. What can we conclude from the last paragraph?
          [A] Both genes and environment should be improved to tackle brain disorders.
          [B] Prevention is by far more important than treatment.
          [C] Mental disorders are curable, and the earlier the better.
          [D] Early treatment can reduce the sufferings and terminate all the symptoms.
         
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 17:32:16 | 显示全部楼层

                        
       
         
          Text 4
          Scientists have known since 1952 that DNA is the basic stuff of heredity. They’ve known its chemical structure since 1953. They know that human DNA acts like a biological computer program some 3 billion bits long that spells out the instructions for making proteins, the basic building blocks of life.
          But everything the genetic engineers have accomplished during the past half-century is just a preamble to the work that Collins and Anderson and legions of colleagues are doing now. Collins leads the Human Genome Project, a 15-year effort to draw the first detailed map of every nook and cranny of gene in human DNA. Anderson, who pioneered the first successful human gene-therapy operations, is leading the campaign to put information about DNA to use as quickly as possible in the treatment and prevention of human diseases.
          What they and other researchers are plotting is nothing less than a biomedical revolution. Like Silicon Valley pirates reverse-engineering a computer chip to steal a competitor’s secrets, genetic engineers are decoding life's molecular secrets and trying to use that knowledge to reverse the natural course of disease. DNA in their hands has become both a blueprint and a drug, a pharmacological substance of extraordinary potency that can treat not just symptoms or the diseases that cause them but also the imperfections in DNA that make people susceptible to a disease.
          And that’s just the beginning. For all the fevered work being done, however, science is still far away from the Brave New World vision of engineering a perfect human—or even a perfect tomato. Much more research is needed before gene therapy becomes commonplace, and many diseases will take decades to conquer, if they can be conquered at all.
          In the short run, the most practical way to use the new technology will be in genetic screening. Doctors will be able to detect all sorts of flaws in DNA long before they can be fixed. In some cases the knowledge may lead to treatments that delay the onset of the disease or soften its effects. Someone with a genetic predisposition to heart disease, for example, could follow a low-fat diet. And if scientists determine that a vital protein is missing because the gene that was supposed to make it is defective, they might be able to give the patient an artificial version of the protein. But in other instances, almost nothing can be done to stop the ravages brought on by genetic mutations.
          56. It can be inferred from the text that Collins and Anderson and legions of colleagues _____.
          [A] know that human DNA acts like a biological computer program
          [B] have found the basic building blocks of life
          [C] have accomplished some genetic discovery during the past half-century
          [D] are making a breakthrough in DNA
          57. Collins and Anderson are cited in the text to indicate all the following EXCEPT that ______.
          [A] gene-therapy now is already generally used to the treatment and prevention of human diseases
          [B] human gene-therapy operations may be applied to the patients
          [C] time-consuming effort is needed to accomplish the detailed map of in human DNA
          [D] information about DNA may be used in the treatment and prevention of human diseases
          58. The word “pirate” (line 2, paragraph 3) most probably means______.
          [A] one who robs at sea or plunders the land from the sea
          [B] one who makes use of or reproduces the work of another without authorization
          [C] to take (something) by piracy
          [D] to make use of or reproduce (another’s work) without authorization
          59. We can draw a conclusion from the text that_____.
          [A] engineering a perfect human is not feasible for the time being
          [B] it’s impossible for scientists to engineer a perfect tomato
          [C] many diseases will never be conquered by human beings
          [D] doctors will be able to cure all sorts of flaws in DNA in the long run
          60. The best title for the text may be ______.
          [A] DNA and Heredity
          [B] The Genetic Revolution
          [C] A Biomedical Revolution
          [D] How to Apply Genetic Technology
         
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 18:25:03 | 显示全部楼层

                        
       
         
          Section IV English-Chinese Translation
          Directions:
          Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined sentences into Chinese. Your translation must be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
          The value which society places on work has traditionally been closely associated with the value of individualism and as a result it has had negative effects on the development of social security. (61)It has meant that in the first place the amount of benefits must be small lest people’s willingness to work and support themselves suffers. Even today with flat rate and earnings-related benefits, the total amount of the benefit must always be smaller than the person’s wages for fear of malingering. “The purpose of social security,” said Huntford referring to Sweden’s comparatively generous benefits, “is to dispel need without crossing the threshold of prosperity.” Second, social security benefits are granted under conditions designed to reduce the likelihood of even the boldest of spirits attempting to lice on the State rather than work. Many of the rules surrounding the payment of unemployment or supplementary benefit are for this purpose. Third, the value placed on work is manifested in a more positive way as in the case of disability. (62)People suffering from accidents incurred at work or from occupational diseases receive preferential treatment by the social security service compared with those suffering from civil accidents and ordinary illnesses.
          Yet, the stranglehold which work has had on the social security service has been increasingly loosened over the years. The provision of family allowances, family income supplements, the slight liberalization of the wages stop are some of the manifestations of this trend. (63)Similarly, the preferential treatment given to occupational disability by the social security service has been increasingly questioned with the demands for the upgrading of benefits for the other types of disability. It is felt that in contemporary industrial societies the distinction between occupational and non-occupational disability is artificial for many non-occupational forms of disability have an industrial origin even if they do not occur directly in the workplace. (64)There is also the additional reason which we mentioned in the argument for one benefit for all one-parent families, that a modern social security service must concentrate on meeting needs irrespective of the cause behind such needs.
          The relationship between social security and work is not all a one-way affair. (65)It is true that until very recently the general view was that social security “represented a type of luxury and was essentially anti-economic.” It was seen as merely government expenditure for the needy. As we saw, however, redundancy payments and earnings-related unemployment benefits have been used with some success by employers and the government to reduce workers’ opposition towards loss of their jobs.
          Section V Writing
          66. Directions:
          [A] Title: FOR A BETTER UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN PARENTS AND CHILDREN
          [B] Word limit: 160-200 words
          [C] Your composition should be based on the OUTLINE below
          [D] Your composition must be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)
          OUTLINE:
          1. Present situation: Lack of communication between parents and children
          2. Possible reasons:
          1) Different likes and dislikes
          2) Misunderstanding
          3) Others
          3. Suggestions:
          1) For parents
          2) For children
         
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 18:53:35 | 显示全部楼层

                        
       
         
          Section I Structure and Vocabulary
          1-5 BAACB 6-10 ACDCD
          11-15 ABBCC 16-20 DDABA
          1. B 考查名词辨析。
          2. A 考查介词搭配。短语in debt和介词to构成搭配,表示“欠……债”。句子译文:我不想再借钱给他;他已经欠我的债了。
          3. A 考查hardly…when结构的倒装形式。
          4. 正确答案为C项。本题考查名词insistence的用法。按照该词的要求,其后的同位语从句谓语动词使用should+原形,should可以省略。在本句中,动词analyze和主语it(指Afro-American poetry)是被动关系,所以使用被动语态。句子译文:“让·瓦格纳对美国黑人诗歌研究最长远的贡献是,他坚决主张既要用世俗的观点又要用宗教的观点分析美国黑人诗歌。”
          5. 正确答案为B项。本题考查as引导的让步状语从句的倒装形式。规则为:从句结尾的词置于句首。句子译文:“尽管家很简陋,但无论他走到哪里,也找不到像家这样的地方。”
          6. 正确答案为A项。考查介词词组。词组in the way表示“妨碍”;by the way表示“顺便说一声”;off the way表示“离开道路”;on the way表示“在路上”。根据语境,此处应选择in the way。句子译文:尽管他认为他在帮我们做饭,实际上他碍手碍脚。
          7. 正确答案为C项。考查副词短语。短语put up表示“举起”、“建造”等;keep up表示“继续”、“坚持”;stand up to表示“经得起,顶得住”、“勇敢地面对”;look up to表示“尊敬”。句子译文:尽管假钞蒙蔽了许多人,但它们却经不起仔细检查。
          8. 正确答案为D项。由过去分词转化而成的形容词lost和介词to搭配,表示“对……没有感觉的”。在lost之前也可以加being,但是要注意语序,应表达为being completely lost。句子译文:“安娜在读一本科幻小说,完全忽略了外面的世界。”
          9. 正确答案为C项。
          10. 正确答案为D项。动词expect之后接不定式作宾语补足语,当然也可以接宾语从句。本句既可以说The students expected there to be more reviewing classes before the final exam.,也可以说The students expected there would be more reviewing classes before the final exam.句子译文:“学生们希望在期末考试前有更多的复习课。”
          11. 正确答案为A项。考查动词辨析。
          12. 正确答案为B项。考查副词短语。短语look up表示“查阅”;go over表示“仔细查看,检查”、“复习”;dwell on表示“详述”、“老是想着”;work out表示“制定出”、“解决”。译文:你可以把这篇文章检查一遍,看是否有打印错误吗?
          13. 正确答案为B项。考查形容词辨析。形容词unusual表示“异乎寻常的”;unique表示“独一无二的”;rare表示“稀有的,罕见的”;singular表示“奇特的”。根据题干后半部分的提示,强调唯一性,应选unique。句子译文:这本相册与众不同,因为它是唯一总统曾签过名的相册。
          14. 正确答案为C项。本题考查either…or…,A项的neither…nor…虽然本身是正确的,但是与题意不符。句子译文:沃德教授几乎从未去过电影院和剧场。
          15. 正确答案为C项。本题考查不定式作主语的补足语,而且表示动作已经发生,应使用不定式的完成时。句子译文:“据当地报纸报道,昨天在光天化日之下该银行遭到抢劫。”
          16. 正确答案为D项。祈使句表示条件,然后由and引出结果。句子译文:如果和医药行业的任何人交谈,你很快就会发现,基因科学是自青霉素发明以来对医药研究影响最大的东西。
          17. 正确答案为D项。
          18. 正确答案为A项。
          19. 正确答案为B项。形容词operative表示“操作的,起作用的”;valid表示“有法律效力的”,如a valid contract具有法律效力的合同,a valid air ticket有效机票;efficient表示“有效率的”;effective表示“有效果的”。句子译文:如果没有有效的护照,游客就不能进入一个国家。
          20. 正确答案为A项。
         
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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发表于 2018-12-8 20:26:37 | 显示全部楼层

                        
       
         
          Section II Use of English
          文章总体分析
          本文主要介绍了默读在历史上的发展演变过程,突出了它产生的原因和背景。第一段是总述,指出默读是一种几乎不为古典学者所知的现代行为。中世纪时期阅读是指大声朗读,一直到19世纪默读才比较流行。第二、三、四段是分述,段落之间是并列关系。第二段介绍了上个世纪阅读的发展,第三段讲的是接近20世纪末阅读的发展情况,第四段讲20世纪末期阅读发展成为默读。
          答案解析
          21. 选[C]。考查上下文语义衔接。本题要求填入一个形容词,可以利用上义词复现这一技巧。During the fifteenth century就是所填词的下义词,即15世纪。它既不属于contemporary,也不属于modern world;而[D]western则与本文主题无关。只有[C] medieval“中世纪的”,指14到16世纪之间,包括了15世纪。
          22. 选[A]。考查上下文语义衔接与副词的词义辨析。所填副词修饰动词meant。文章第一句开篇明义,默读是一种现代社会行为,古代学者根本不知默读为何物。很显然,这一句中强调读书指的就是大声朗读,因此选[A] undoubtedly“毋庸置疑地,肯定地”,强调完全真实或是确实存在。[B]really“确实地,真正地”,与此处语气不符;[C] absolutely“完全地,绝对地”;[D] accordingly“相应地”。
          23. 选[D]。考查形近词辨析。所填词的逻辑主语是one,指人,宾语是that从句,从that从句可推断空格处要表达“认为,想象”的意思,因此排除[B] consuming“消费”和[C] resuming“再继续,恢复”。[D] assuming“想,假想”,指为论证提出有一定根据的假设,很少甚至无根据的心理推测,[A] imagining指随意或在脑海中构成清晰明确的图像,此处显然是assuming符合。
          24. 选[B]。考查上下文语义衔接与名词辨析。本题要求填入一个名词来判断大声阅读对他人的影响。我们从文章的第二段的末尾开始倒读,在第二段的末尾同样谈到了大声阅读对他人的影响,此处的用词是distraction,因此选复现的原词[B]。[A] interruption“打断,中止”,指的是瞬间行为使别人中断做某事,reading显然是一段时间的行为;[C] bother“麻烦,不便”,往往指“麻烦他人做某事”;[D] pressure“压力”。
          25. 选[A]。考查形近词辨析。本题需填入一个形容词来表示“历史发展”,四个选项都是同根词,都与历史有关[A] historical“历史上的,历史记载的”;[B] historic“(历史上)著名的,重要的”;[C] history“历史,历史学”;[D] historian“历史学家”。文章中主要表示客观的历史的发展,因此选[A]。
          26. 选[B]。考查名词辨析。所填词表达阅读任务本身在……方面的改变,是对阅读这一任务的修饰或指代,因此排除[A] quality“(人的)品德,品性;(事物的)品质,质量”,不能用来修饰默读的品质,同时排除[C] personality“(人的)个性,人格,人物”,用来指代人而不能指代物;而[D] distinctiveness“(品质性格或外表)与众不同”,强调的是与其他事物的差别,本题并不是强调默读与别的事物的差别。因此,只有[B] character“(事物的)特性,特质,(人或物)特点,特征”,正好可以用来指默读的特性。
          27. 选[C]。考查形近词辨析。四个选项都是同根词,[A] literate是形容词,表示“能读会写的,识字的”,如果表达的是会读写的人越来越多,则应用increase in the literate,the后面接形容词表示某类人。[B] illiterate“文盲”或“不识字的,没受教育的”,与文中意思相反;选项[C] literacy是名词,指的是“有读写能力,有文化”,该句要表达的是文化素质提高,因此是increase in literacy;[D] literature“文学,作品”,不符合题意。
          28. 选[B]。考查上下文语义衔接。前一分句讲读者数目增加了readers increased,那么相应地听别人读书的人应该是减少了。与increased形成反义词复现的只有[B] declined“下降”。而且从As reading for the benefit of listeners grew less common…也可得到证实。其他选项,[A] receded“后退,倒退”,不能用来修饰the number;[C] increased、[D] expanded“膨胀,扩张”均与文意相反。
          29. 选[C]。考查上下文语义衔接。空格所在句与上一句之间的关系是因果关系。正是因为读书的人数目增多,潜在的听者的数目下降,所以大声朗读的必要性也就减弱。很自然由此得出正确答案[C] reduction“减少,减弱”。[A] limitation“限制”、[B] necessity“必要性,需要”、[D] shrink“缩水,萎缩”。
          30. 选[A]。考查上下文语义衔接。空格所在句与上一句之间的逻辑关系是因果关系,由as和so连接。上一句讲的是reading for the benefit of listeners grew less common。本题需要填入一个形容词与上文形成对比,应选[A] private“私人的”。该句句意:随着读书作为一种为听众服务而存在的活动愈来愈不常见,它逐渐变成一种大众场所普遍的私人活动。其他选项[B] overt“公开的”、[C] public“大众的,公开的”与文义相反;[D] secret“秘密的”与空格后的public相矛盾,秘密活动怎么会在大众场所进行?
          31. 选[A]。考查动词辨析。四个选项均有“产生、引起、导致”之意,但其用法并不相同。选项[A] cause“引起,导致”,表示事件起因和结果之间的关系;[B] effect指通过克服困难或采取有计划的行为而取得成果;[C] produce着重表示见到的或实际的后果;[D] realize表示希望计划、理想会成为现实。本文中表示一种因果关系,所以只有[A]符合题意。
          32. 选[A]。考查形容词辨析。分析四个选项,[A] considerable“相当多的,相当可观的”、[B] considerate“考虑周到的”、[C] moderate“中等的,适度的,适中的”、[D] immoderate“不适中的,不合适的”。由still这个词可知此处为肯定的含义,故选[A]。该句意思为:到世纪末仍然存在着许多争论。
          33. 选[C]。考查上下文语义衔接与副词辨析。所填副词修饰动词treat,首先排除[A] respectively“分别地,各自地”,因为被treated的只有books一种;同时排除[D] relatively“相应地”,因为没有说明被对待的程度;[B] honorably“值得尊敬地,体面地”,应该是尊敬地对待,而不能是值得尊敬地对待,所以选[C] respectfully“尊敬地,谦恭地”。
          34. 选[C]。考查上下文语义衔接与副词辨析。空格处需填一个副词修饰weaken“削弱,使变弱”。分析四个选项,[A] largely“主要地,大量地,在很大程度上地”;[B] intelligently“聪明地”;[C] mentally“精神上地,智力上地”;[D] physically“体力上地”。根据上下文的意思,阅读是一种智力上的行为,因此只有[C]符合题意。该句句意:人们讨论阅读诸如报纸这样的材料是否在某种程度上是智力上的削弱。
          35. 选[B]。考查上下文逻辑衔接。主句讲的是那种共同分享文化知识的习俗已经成为过去,分句中提到了大声阅读的优点its values,由此可以判断主句和分句间的关系是让步关系,用副词whatever“无论什么,不管什么”连接,后面省略了主语和谓语“it had”。[A] However“然而,可是”,表示转折关系;[C] whichever“任何一个”;[D] wherever“无论哪里”,表示的是地点。
          36. 选[A]。考查上下文语义衔接。上句说到传统的文化已经消失,这句谈到现在的媒体方式。前者肯定是被后者所取代的,因此选[A] replace“取代,代替”,符合题意。该句句意:取代传统习俗的一方面是现代的印刷媒体。[B] take“拿,取”、[C] follow“追随,跟随”、[D] distinguish“区别”。本题易误选[C],这是因为没有弄明白传统文化方式与现在媒体关系。
          37. 选[D]。考查形近词辨析。选项[A] specific“明确的,确切的”;[B] special“特别的,特殊的,专门的”;[C]specified“明确规定的”;[D] specialized“专门的,专业的”。readership是一个抽象的概念,指“读者的身份”。选项中可修饰这个词的只有specialized,意为“专业化的”,因此选[D]。
          38. 选[B]。考查上下文逻辑衔接。本题涉及到上下文的逻辑关系,而且难度较大,因为空格所在处实际为一个省略主谓语的插入成分,即if (it is) not impossible,指的是students were being recommended…这件事可能的话。如果选其他三项,则说明impossible与inappropriate并列,都修饰attitudes与skills,说被推荐的读书态度与读书使用的技能是不可能的,显然不合逻辑,不可能怎么还会推荐呢,所以排除其他三项而选[B]。
          39. 选[D]。考查上下文语义衔接与动词辨析。[A] translated“翻译”[B] differ“不一致,不同”,为不及物动词;[C] shift “改变位置或方向”;[D] alter“改变,更改”。该句讲在科学文化领域的进步改变了“读书”这个词的含义,因此应选[D]。
          40. 选[D]。考查动词用法。所填词的主语是the term reading,排除主语应为人的选项[B] advise“建议,劝告”与[C] induce“劝诱,促使”。[A] infer“推断”、[D] imply“暗示,意味”,文章问“阅读”这个术语(the term “reading”)意味着什么,而不是说它能推断什么,因此选[D]。
         
                        
                   转眼间霜降已过,一阵阵北风让树叶纷纷凋落,2019的考生即将迎来考验的大时刻,这个阶段更要稳住步伐不慌不乱,跨小考期待与你考后在跨考教育导师库相见,那时再为已经通过初试,准备复试的你助力!
       据相关调查统计显示,以就业为导向,想要提高自身就业筹码而选择考研的考生占整体的近70%,准备开启2020考研征程的你,是为了什么而一往无前呢?为了给自己一个选择的机会,也为了更了解将来就业企业的择人标准,你需要趁这个寒假为考研开启预热模式——跨考寒假预科班,15天集训,直接定校定专业,让你全年的复习不再左摇右摆浪费时间!
      
       小编整理了历年考研真题及答案解析,关注微信公众号:跨考考研,回复“真题”即可获得,说不定还能找到一起上自习的研友哦!
2019秋季整合提升方案
2019考研公共课秋季整合2019最新考研政治大纲公共课考研大纲变动汇总
2019年考研政治《思修法基》练习试题及答案汇总【跨考名师精品】2019考研必读:复习方法及真题热点解读
2020考研择校则专业必知就业率高的十大考研专业推荐34所自主划线高校历年复试分数线(2012-2018)
这些相似的考研专业都有什么区别?跨专业考研难度较大的六大专业

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